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Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: R Christopher Walton, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 15, 2016
 
 

Diagnostic Considerations

Misdiagnosis of infectious uveitis can lead to inappropriate treatment and potential toxicity, while losing valuable ground without the needed steroid therapy. On the other hand, infectious uveitis misdiagnosed as VKH disease and treated with systemic immunosuppression can lead to disastrous results. In particular, patients with syphilis or tuberculosis may demonstrate significant deterioration when treated with steroids alone prior to aggressive appropriate antibiotic therapy.[51]

Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease include the following:

  • Sympathetic ophthalmia
  • Intraocular lymphoma
  • Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation
  • Metastatic carcinoma
  • Idiopathic uveal effusion syndrome
  • Benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia
  • Toxemia of pregnancy
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Vitiligo with poliosis
  • Scleritis
  • Peripheral anterior synechia
  • Tuberculosis
  • Anterior granulomatous uveitis
  • Intermediate uveitis
  • White dot syndromes
  • Alezzandrini syndrome
  • Alopecia areata
  • Piebaldism
  • Vitiligo
  • Ocular manifestations of syphilis

Differential Diagnoses

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

R Christopher Walton, MD Professor, Director of Uveitis and Ocular Inflammatory Disease Service, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee College of Medicine

R Christopher Walton, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Retina Society, American College of Healthcare Executives, American Uveitis Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Camila K Janniger, MD Clinical Professor of Dermatology, Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Chief of Pediatric Dermatology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School

Camila K Janniger, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Anna Choczaj-Kukula, MD, PhD Locum Consultant Dermatologist, Barnet and Chase Farm NHS Trust; Honorary Clinical Research Fellow, Royal Free Hospital, UK

Anna Choczaj-Kukula, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Royal Society of Medicine, European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, British Association of Dermatologists

Disclosure: Partner received salary from Johnson & Johnson for management position.

Chief Editor

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Hampton Roy, Sr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American College of Surgeons, Pan-American Association of Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

David F Butler, MD Professor of Dermatology, Texas A&M University College of Medicine; Chair, Department of Dermatology, Director, Dermatology Residency Training Program, Scott and White Clinic, Northside Clinic

David F Butler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, American Society for MOHS Surgery, Association of Military Dermatologists, and Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Steve Charles, MD Director of Charles Retina Institute; Clinical Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee College of Medicine; Adjunct Professor of Ophthalmology, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons; Clinical Professor Ophthalmology, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Steve Charles, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Retina Specialists, Club Jules Gonin, Macula Society, and Retina Society

Disclosure: Alcon Laboratories Consulting fee Consulting; OptiMedica Ownership interest Other; Topcon Medical Lasers Consulting fee Consulting

Anna Choczaj-Kukula, MD, PhD Locum Consultant Dermatologist, St John's Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas' Hospital, UK

Anna Choczaj-Kukula, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, British Association of Dermatologists, European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, and Royal Society of Medicine

Disclosure: Johnson & Johnson Salary Management position

Dirk M Elston, MD Director, Ackerman Academy of Dermatopathology, New York

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Janet Fairley, MD Professor and Head, Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine

Janet Fairley, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Dermatological Association, American Federation for Medical Research, and Society for Investigative Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Camila K Janniger, MD Clinical Professor of Dermatology, Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Chief of Pediatric Dermatology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School

Camila K Janniger, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head, Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, and Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

John D Sheppard Jr, MD, MMSc Professor of Ophthalmology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Clinical Director, Thomas R Lee Center for Ocular Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Residency Research Program Director, Eastern Virginia Medical School; President, Virginia Eye Consultants

John D Sheppard Jr, MD, MMSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society for Microbiology, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, American Uveitis Society, and Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Medscape Salary Employment

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Bilateral, multifocal serous detachments in a patient with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Disc hyperemia is evident in the right eye.
Fluorescein angiography of the left eye in a patient with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Midphase is shown on the left, with multiple areas of hyperfluorescence at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Late phase on the same angiogram (right) reveals multiple placoid areas of hyperfluorescence at the level of the RPE and pooling of dye in the areas of serous detachment.
Patient with progressive dysacusis and recent onset of visual loss. Fundus photo shows a large, multifocal serous detachment of the right eye. B-scan ultrasonography reveals posterior choroidal thickening with an overlying retinal detachment.
Patient with progressive dysacusis and recent onset of visual loss is shown here following 6 weeks of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Diffuse depigmentation of the choroid with retinal pigment epithelium migration is seen. Residual retinal striae are present in the peripapillary region. B-scan ultrasonography shows resolution of retinal detachment and choroidal thickening.
 
 
 
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