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Early Pregnancy Loss Medication

  • Author: Elizabeth E Puscheck, MD; Chief Editor: Richard Scott Lucidi, MD, FACOG  more...
 
Updated: Nov 15, 2015
 

Medication Summary

For a complete abortion, no medication is likely to be needed. Usually, the uterus contracts well after expelling the entire contents and the cervix is closed. The risk for infection is minimal.

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Immune globulins

Class Summary

Used to suppress the immune system when the mother is Rh negative.

Rho (D) immune globulin (RhoGAM)

 

Suppresses immune response of mother who is nonsensitized Rh O (D) negative exposed to Rh O (D) positive blood from the fetus as a result of a fetomaternal hemorrhage, abdominal trauma, amniocentesis, abortion, full-term delivery, or transfusion accident.

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Ergot alkaloid and derivatives

Class Summary

Occasionally, the uterus does not contract well, and a clot may form in the uterine cavity. If the physician notes a boggy uterus after expulsion of the products of conception, the physician may consider methylergonovine in the appropriate candidate. In most cases in which a clot forms within the uterus, a surgical D&C finally is warranted.

Methylergonovine (Methergine)

 

Acts directly on uterine smooth muscle, causing a sustained tetanic uterotonic effect that reduces uterine bleeding and shortens the third stage of labor.

Administer IM after a D&C, during puerperium, after delivery of placenta, or after delivering anterior shoulder. Also may be administered IV over no less than 60 sec, but should not be administered routinely because it may provoke hypertension or a stroke. Monitor blood pressure closely when administering IV.

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Antineoplastic Agent, Antimetabolite

Class Summary

These agents inhibit cell growth and proliferation.

Methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall)

 

Antimetabolite that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, thereby hindering DNA synthesis and embryonic cell reproduction.

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Prostaglandins

Class Summary

Misoprostol, a prostaglandin agent, has been recently reported as safe and effective medical treatment for missed abortion, inevitable abortion, or incomplete abortion. It is used as off-labeled indication and is not FDA approved for this indication.

Misoprostol (Cytotec)

 

Prostaglandin agent also categorized as an anti-ulcer (protective) and endocrine metabolic agent. As a prostaglandin agent, misoprostol will increase uterine smooth muscle contractions and soften the cervix to allow passage of products of conception from missed abortion, inevitable abortion, or incomplete abortion. Not FDA approved for medical treatment of these types of abortions; yet, recent literature suggests is that it is safe and effective. Administered orally or vaginally. Comes in 200 mcg tablets.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Elizabeth E Puscheck, MD Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine; In Vitro Fertilization Director, Gynecologic Ultrasound Director, Clinical Endocrine Laboratory Consultant, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Women's Care

Elizabeth E Puscheck, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, International Society for Clinical Densitometry, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, Society of Reproductive Surgeons, Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Richard S Legro, MD Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Milton S Hershey Medical Center

Richard S Legro, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Society of Reproductive Surgeons, American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Endocrine Society, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Korea National Institute of Health and National Institute of Health (Bethesda, MD) for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Greater Toronto Area Reproductive Medicine Society (Toronto, ON, CA) for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists (Washington, DC) for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Research Thi.

Chief Editor

Richard Scott Lucidi, MD, FACOG Associate Professor of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine

Richard Scott Lucidi, MD, FACOG is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Suzanne R Trupin, MD, FACOG Clinical Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign; CEO and Owner, Women's Health Practice; CEO and Owner, Hada Cosmetic Medicine and Midwest Surgical Center

Suzanne R Trupin, MD, FACOG is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, International Society for Clinical Densitometry, AAGL, North American Menopause Society, American Medical Association, Association of Reproductive Health Professionals

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Drugs & Diseases gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author Archana Pradhan, MD, MPH, to the development and writing of this article.

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Second transvaginal sonogram obtained 1 week after the initial study fails to demonstrate fetal development. This confirms the diagnosis of an embryonic pregnancy.
1a Video courtesy; Armando Hernandez
1b Video courtesy; Armando Hernandez
1c Video courtesy; Armando Hernandez
1d Video courtesy; Armando Hernandez
1e Video courtesy; Armando Hernandez
 
 
 
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