No typical dosing guidelines
Antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, analgesic, hypotensive, antiinflamatory, & immune enhancing effect
Reduces total cholesterol & triglycerides
Reduction of chronic pain, painful inflammation & swelling (root extract)
Treatment of diabetes (chewing leaves releases & activates soluble dietary fiber): slows absorption of simple sugars from gut
Treatment of parasitic infections (extract from leaves of Morinda citrifolia) ie, intestinal nematodes
Anti-inflammatory & acne reduction when applied topically
Cancer: antitumor potential
There is insufficient reliable information available
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Acute hepatitis, liver toxicity, liver damage, hyperkalemia
History of hepatitis; liver disease
Diarrhea: laxative effect
Liver damage, including liver transplant
Advanced kidney disease
Use smallest quantity
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: N/A
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Prevents carcinogen DMBA-DNA adduct formation & antioxidant activity contributes to cancer prevention effect
Synergistic effects when combined w/ a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, 5-fl uorouracil, methotrexate)
Potentiates NK cell, macrophage, T-helper cell function