Topical or oral use not recommended
Facial neuralgia, rheumatism, sciatica
Possibly effective topically for facial neuralgia
Frequency Not Defined
V-TACH, V-FIB; LIFE THREATENING WITHIN 30 MINUTES OF INGESTION
Topical or oral use of undiluted herb
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: N/A
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Alkaloids activate sodium channels in cardiac, muscle, and nerve tissue