Brand and Other Names:activin, leucoanthocyanin, more...Muscat, muskat, pine bark extract, pinus maritima, pinus nigra, proanthodyn, pycnogenol, vitis coignetiae, vitis vinifera
- Classes: Cardiovascular, Herbals
Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Extract procyanidin: 150-300 mg PO qD
Tablets/Capsules: 75-300 mg/d for 3 weeks, THEN 40-80 mg/d OR
360 mg or 720 mg once daily (Antistax, Boehringer Ingelheim) PO qD
Ocular Stress Reduction
Extract procyanidin: 200-300 mg PO qD
Endometriosis (based on RCT): 30 mg PO BID
Atherosclerosis, attention deficit disorder, cancer (prevention), chronic venous insufficiency, collagen breakdown (prevention), dental caries prevention, macular degeneration, peripheral vascular disease, poor night vision, retinopathy, varicose veins, endometriosis
Effective in relieving symptoms of circulatory disorders
One RCT indicates effective in reducing symptoms of endometriosis (Kohama, J. Reprod Med)
Not effective against signs of aging, collagen destruction
Frequency Not Defined
Potential for hepatotoxicity
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: N/A
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action