250-750 mg/d PO in div doses
1-4 ml PO TID
Extract standardized to 20-22% saponins
Diarrhea, fever, hemorrhoids, phlebitis, prostate enlargement, varicose veins, venous insufficiency
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Frequency Not Defined
Kidney toxicity (IV)
Liver toxicity (IV)
Hepatitic impairment, infectious GI conditions, inflammatory GI conditions, renal impairment
Bleeding disorders, concurrent hypoglycemic agents, diabetes mellitus
WARNING: use only standardized seed extract; raw seed, leaf, bark, or flower possibly fatal
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: raw seed unsafe; avoid use
Lactation: avoid use
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Saponins: aescin: vasoconstrictor; aesculin (a hydroxycoumarin)- antithrombin activity