Dried Ripe Berries
20-60 g/d PO
160 mg PO BID; contains 25% anthocyanosides
1 cup PO; 1 g dried leaf/150 ml water
Apply 10% decoction topically PRN; dried berries boiled in water for decoction
Angina, atherosclerosis, circulatory problems, degenerative retinal conditions, diarrhea, mouth/throat inflammation (topical), retinopathy, varicose veins
Clinical studies show bilberry effective for diarrhea & retinopathy
Frequency Not Defined
Excitation at high doses (animal studies)
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: N/A
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Anthocyanosides are powerful antioxidants, with particular affinity for retina