Aqueous Extract: 400-900 mg PO up to 2 hours before bedtime
Ethanolic extract: 600 mg PO HS
Root (fresh or dried): 2-3 g PO qDay-TID
Combinations with hops or lemon balm: 320-500 mg PO HS
No more than 28 days
Insomnia/sleep disorders, ADHD, anxiety disorders, depression, epilepsy, infantile convulsions, menopausal symptoms, menstrual cramps, restlessness, tremors
Promotes falling asleep, but does not reduce night awakenings
Does not relieve insomnia as fast as benzodiazepines
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Frequency Not Defined
Withdrawal syndrome (chronic use)
Concurrent CNS depressants
Concurrent CYP 3A4 substrates
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: avoid use
Lactation: avoid use
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Active constituents: valepotriates
Inhibits re-uptake of GABA