1-2 g crushed seed in 150 mL boiling water
5-7.5 g/day PO
01.-0.6 mL; no more than 2 weeks
Take 1-2 caps (480-960 mg) qDay-TID, preferably with food
Treatment of infants & nursing children suffering from colic & dyspeptic disease
URI, cough & sore throat
Reduces pain associated with menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea)
Increase milk secretion, promote menstruation, facilitate birth, alleviate male climacteric (andropause) symptoms, & incr libido
Antiinflammatory, analgesic & antioxidant properties
Colic: A clinical trial showed breast-fed infants with colic had decreased crying time
Insufficient reliable information about effectiveness for other uses
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Breathing problems, tightness of chest/throat, chest pain, nausea & vomiting, skin hives, rash, itchy or swollen skin, mild increase in menstrual flow, sun sensitivity, seizures
Hypersensitivity to carrots, celery or mugwort
Pregnant or breastfeeding: seek physician advice
Pregnancy: do not use fennel preparations other than fennel honey & fennel seed infusions
Children: use only fennel honey
Epilepsy or seizure d/o
Do not use Fennel for a long time or in large quantities
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: use only fennel honey & fennel seed infusions
Lactation: may increase milk flow, consult physician
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
PO admin (200 mg/kg) of fruit methonolic extract:
- significantly increase plasma superoxide dismutase & catalase activity and HDL cholesterol levels
- inhibitory effect against acute & subacute inflammatory diseases & type IV allergic rxn
- showed central analgesic effect
Fennel seed oil: reduces intestinal spasms & increases motility of small intestine
Hepatoprotection: inhibits hepatotoxicity by decreasing levels of AST, ALT, ALP & bilirubin