1 ml PO TID, OR
1-2 g steeped in boiling water TID
Menopausal symptoms: 4.5 g powder PO qD
3-4 g PO div TID with meals, OR
520-1560 mg PO TID, OR
Stimulate normal menstrual flow, prevent cramping
Anemia, constipation, dysmenorrhea, hypertension, psoriasis, rheumatism, skin depigmentation, ulcers
Controversial; apparently more effective in combination with other herbs
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Frequency Not Defined
Photodermatitis (especially A. archangelica)
Safrole, in essential oil, is carcinogen
Breast cancer, endometriosis, hormone sensitive conditions, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, uterine fibroids
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: avoid use
Lactation: avoid use
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Phytoestrogen modulate endogenous estrogen effects; also contains coumarins