General Dosing Guidlines
0.25-2 g PO TID
1 cup PO BID-TID and 30 min before bedtime; 0.25-2 g/150 ml water
0.5-1 ml PO TID; 1:1 in 25% alcohol
0.5-2 ml PO TID; 1:8 in 45% alcohol
Liquid extract: 45 gtt PO daily
Liquid extract: 60 gtt PO daily
ADHD, cardiac rhythm abnormalities, generalized anxiety disorder, GI upset, hemorrhoids (topical), insomnia, nervousness/excitability, neuralgias, opiate withdrawal symptoms, pain
Possibly effective for nervous restlessness, anxiety, opiate withdrawal when used in combo with clonidine
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Frequency Not Defined
Prolonged QT interval
Concurrent sedative agents
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: unsafe
Lactation: avoid use
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Apigenin: benzodiazepine receptor agonist
May have some MAOI activity