1.5-4 g PO qD
One cup of tea PO QID
Steep 3 grams dried leaf in 150 mL cold water for 12-24 hours and then strain
Fluid extract (1:1 in 25% alcohol)
1.5-4 mL PO TID
Hydroquinone derivative, calculated as water-free arbutin
100-210 mg PO QID
Urinary tract antibacterial, astringent
Possibly effective for urinary tract inflammation
Currently is not clear if extended use is safe, tell patients not to use long-term
More evidence is needed to support use for UTI's
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Nausea, vomiting, greenish-brown urine
WARNING: urine must be alkaline for efficacy
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: unsafe
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Arbutin, tannins, hydroquinone: antimicrobial, astringent