Root: 6-20 g PO qDay
Capsule: 500-1500 mg PO TID with water at mealtime
Topical: Topical: apply as poultice until a burning sensation
UTI, urinary stones, upper respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, sinusitis), gout, rheumatism, gallbladder disorders, sciatica pain, & relief of colic
Inflamed joints or tissues and minor muscle aches
Approved by German Commission E for treatment of respiratory tract infections & supportive treatment for UTI as well as externally for respiratory tract congestion & minor muscle aches
Some preliminary reports indicating benefits, but definitive scientific studies absent
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
GI discomfort, heavy sweating, vomiting
GI ulcers, kidney d/o
<4 years old
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: contraindicated
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Contains volatile oils similar to mustard that include glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides), gluconasturtiin, and sinigrin which have antibacterial function in vitro
Also contains peroxidase which may have therapeutic properties