1-30 g/d PO
Doses > 28 g/day not recommended, no additional benefit and might cause immune suppression
0.5-1 L per day (maximum of 120 grams of whole root per liter of water)
URI, common cold, other infections, hepatitis
Breast, cervical, lung cancer (in combo with glossy privet [Ligustrum lucidum])
Insufficient reliable evidence to rate use in breast cancer, lung cancer, hepatitis and the common cold
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: N/A
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Saponins (e.g. astragaloside), Flavonoids, Polysaccharides
Antioxidants, stimulates interferon, IgA, IgG