1 cup PO PRN; 1.5-4.5 g leaf/150 mL water
2-6 mL PO TID; 1:5 in 45% alcohol
Apply 1% of a 70:1 lyophilized aqueous extract topically BID-QID up to 14 d
Abdominal distension, antispasmodic, appetite stimulant, digestive aid, flatulence, Graves disease, herpes labialis (topical), insomnia
Possibly effective for listed uses
Frequency Not Defined
Skin irritation (topical use)
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: avoid use
Lactation: avoid use
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Tannins, polyphenols possess antiviral activity