0.5-1 g PO TID
0.3-1.0 ml PO TID; 1:1, 60% ethanol
2-4 ml PO TID; 1:10, 60% ethanol
Rinse TID-QID; with 6 g dried herb/150 ml water
Common cold, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, dysmenorrhea/menorrhagia, flatulence, gastritis/colitis, mouth/gum sores, respiratory infections, ringworm, urinary tract infections, urine drug tests
Frequency Not Defined
Bradycardia (Overdose: OD)
Cardiac damage (OD)
Respiratory failure (OD)
Breast-feeding, hyperbilirubinemia, infectious GI conditions, inflammatory GI conditions, newborn/infant, pregnancy
Cardiovascular disorders, concurrent antihypertensives, concurrent CYP 3A4 substrates, concurrent sedative agents, hypertension
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: X
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Active constituent, berberine, has broad-spectrum antimicrobial & antiinfective activity