Insufficent reliable evidence on effectiveness
Oral: 1-4 g PO TID
Crushed herb: 10-15 g/d PO (may div TID)
Liquid extract: 5-8 g/d PO (may div TID)
Topical: 3-5 g applied topically
Blood pressure problems, arrhythmias, weak heart, epistaxis, PMS
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: do not use
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Influences blood pressure, boosts cardiac output/heart rate, promotes uterine contractions; contains saponins, bursinic acid, flavonoids, choline, beta carotene, and Vitamins B, C, and K