Extract: 1-2 g PO qDay OR
Root: 1.5 g PO qDay
Bronchitis, cough, inflammation of mucous membranes in lower & upper respiratory tract
Poison Ivy, acne, psoriasis, eczema, and boils
Only applicable part of plant is the root
Insufficient reliable information available. More studies are needed
See product label
May irritate stomach, skin, mucous membranes
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: no harmful effects known
Lactation: no harmful effects known
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Antibacterial & expectorant properties: kills bacteria & loosens phlegm
Strongly irritant action of saponins stimulates cough reflex & increases production of a more fluid mucus within respiratory tract