Dosing & Uses
Dosage Forms & Strengths
powder for injection: Schedule IV
Induction: 50-120 mg (70 mg average) IV push at 10 mg ( 1 mL of 1% solution) over 5 seconds, depending on patient response
Maintenance: 20-40 mg (2-4 mL of 1% soluiton) IV push q4-7min PRN, OR 4-6 mg/min IV drip
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Frequency Not Defined
Hiccups, coughing, muscle twitching & laryngospasm, which may impair pulmonary ventilation
Respiratory depression, apnea, dyspnea, cardiorespiratory arrest (which may occur in association with seizures), or hypotension may occur
Circulatory depression, peripheral vasculatory collapse, bronchospasm, postanesthetic shivering, salivation, skeletal muscle hyperactivity (twitching to convulsive-like movements), seizures, restlessness, anxiety (especially in the presence of postop pain), headache, nausea, vomiting, abd pain, & emergence delirium may also occur
Acute allergic reactions including erythema, pruritus, urticaria, rhinitis, hypotension, dyspnea, anxiety, restlessness, abdominal pain & peripheral vascular collapse have been reported
Thrombophlebitis, injection site pain, & injury to nerves adjacent to injection site
Extravasation may cause local irritation manifested as pain, swelling, ulceration, & necrosis
Black Box Warnings
Methohexital should be used in hospital or ambulatory care settings that can provide continuous monitoring of respiratory (eg, pulse oximetry) and cardiac function
Resuscitative drugs and age- and size-appropriate equipment for bag valve mask ventilation and intubation and personnel trained in their use and skilled in airway management should be readily available
For deeply sedated patients, a designated individual other than the practitioner performing the procedure should be present to continuously monitor the patient
Known hypersensitivity to barbiturates
Relative: cardiovascular disease, hypotension, respiratory disease
Severe anemia, extreme obesity, debilitated patients
Renal/hepatic/endocrine/circulatory dysfunction, obstructive pulmonary dz, severe HTN, status asthmaticus
Rapid bolus doses will increase cardiorespiratory effects including laryngospasm, apnea, hypotension, myocardial depression, cardiovascular collapse
Mild sedation may persist 8-12 hr
Patients should be instructed on discharge not to drive or operate heavy machinery
General anesthetics and sedation drugs in young children and pregnant women
- Brain development
- Prolonged or repeated exposure may result in negative effects on fetal or young children’s brain development
- Caution with use during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 yr or in pregnant women during their third trimester
- Assess the risk:benefit ratio in these populations, especially for prolonged procedures (ie, >3 hr) or multiple procedures
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: C
Lactation: excreted in breast milk; use by nursing mothers should be evaluated carefully
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Ultra short-acting anesthetic barbiturate; no muscle relaxant activity
Half-Life: 3-6 hr
Onset: Immediate (IV); 2-10 min (IM); 5-15 min (PR)
Duration: 10-20 min (IV); 45 min (PR)
Metabolism: Hepatically conjugated to inactive metabolites; slow
Excretion: Urine; trace amounts of drug &/or metabolites also excreted in feces & sweat
Solution: D5/LR, D5W in NS, D5W, LR, NS
Additive: chlorpromazine, hydralazine, kanamycin, lidocaine, mechlorethamine, methyldopate, prochlorperazine, promazine, promethazine, streptomycin
Do not use diluents containing bacteriostats
Soln should be clear or colorless or it should not be used
Administer by injection or infusion, in concentration no higher than 1%
Avoid intraarterial injection & extravasation
Store at controlled room temp
Adding plans allows you to compare formulary status to other drugs in the same class.
To view formulary information first create a list of plans. Your list will be saved and can be edited at any time.
Adding plans allows you to:
- View the formulary and any restrictions for each plan.
- Manage and view all your plans together – even plans in different states.
- Compare formulary status to other drugs in the same class.
- Access your plan list on any device – mobile or desktop.
The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information.
|1||This drug is available at the lowest co-pay. Most commonly, these are generic drugs.|
|2||This drug is available at a middle level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "preferred" (on formulary) brand drugs.|
|3||This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs.|
|4||This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.|
|5||This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.|
|6||This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.|
|NC||NOT COVERED – Drugs that are not covered by the plan.|
Drugs that require prior authorization. This restriction requires that specific clinical criteria be met prior to the approval of the prescription.
Drugs that have quantity limits associated with each prescription. This restriction typically limits the quantity of the drug that will be covered.
Drugs that have step therapy associated with each prescription. This restriction typically requires that certain criteria be met prior to approval for the prescription.
Drugs that have restrictions other than prior authorization, quantity limits, and step therapy associated with each prescription.