Oral dosing has not been studied in well conducted human trials. No specific dose can be recommended
Abdominal cramps, acne, angina pectoris, circulation problems, eczema/psoriasis, hepatitis (chronic), insomnia, ischemic stroke, menstrual problems, skin conditions, bruising, & wound healing
Ischemic Stroke: Preliminary research indicates that PO or IV may improve neurological deficits after acute ischemic stroke. More studies are needed
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Pruritis, reduced appetite, stomach upset
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: avoid use
Lactation: avoid use
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Root has antispasmodic and antithrombotic properties; increases coronary flow rate