Swish orally and swallow TID; use 10-15 drops liquid extract / 100 ml warm water
1 mL PO TID (Iberogast, Medical Futures, Inc)
Dried flower heads
2-8 g PO TID
1 cup PO TID-QID; 3 g dried flower heads/150 ml water
1-4 ml PO TID; 1:1 in 45% alcohol
Apply 3-10% ointment/gel PRN
Flatulence, GI inflammatory disorders, GI spasms, inflammation (skin or mucous membrane), insomnia, menstrual cramps, motion sickness
Topical: hemorrhoids, mucositis (chemo-induced)
Classified as effective by German Commission E
Possibly effective for dyspepsia, colic and mucositis
Frequency Not Defined
Generally regarded as safe
Hypersensitivity to Asteraceae/Compositae plants chrysanthemums, daisies, marigolds, ragweed
Asthma, concurrent CYP 3A4 substrates
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: avoid use
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Tiglic acid esters: antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory
Chamazulene: antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antibacterial
Apigenin: anti-inflammatory (comparable to NSAIDs)
Bisabolols: antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic