Insufficient reliable evidence available for effectiveness
600 mg/day PO average amount
Tincture: 6 g/day divided TID PO
Liquid extract: 600 mg/day divided TID PO
Dried extract: 150 mg/day PO
Circulatory disorders, heart palpitations, arrhythmia, CHF, cardiac edema, cardiac asthma, kidney and bladder stones, UTI
Contains cardiac glycosides similar to those in digitalis
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
High BP, kidney/liver dz, potassium deficiency
Use only under qualified supervision: potentially fatal if overdosed
Taking more than recommended dose may cause nausea, vomiting, headache, stupor, disorders of color perception, and irregular heartbeat
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: avoid
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Cardiac glycosides increase force and power of heartbeat without increasing amount of oxygen required by cardiac muscle