Arthritis: 5-20% in an oil-based formulation or 5-10% in an alcohol-based formulation
Nasal Congestion: 1 tsp in boiling water for steam inhalation; also rub on chest & around nose
Arthritis, nasal congestion, asthma, skin ulcers, tick repellant
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Severe AEs if oil is taken PO: abd pain, cyanosis, dyspnea, ataxia, hypotension, arrhythmias, multiorgan failure
Acute intermittent porphyria
Do NOT ingest oil - severe, potentially fatal toxicity
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: avoid
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Elicits anti-inflammatory effect by interacting with OH- radicals; interferes with leukocyte activation