Dosage recommendations vary widely according to Mfr & form, follow package instructions carefully
Mild depression, neuroses, emotional disturbances, severe nerve damage, and limb tremors, mild sedative, to lower blood pressure, and to relax small intestine peristalsis
Insufficient information available
Frequency Not Defined
Toxicity (higher doses)
Concurrency with other CNS-acting drugs
Do not take more than recommended doses
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: avoid
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
One of the chief painkillers in traditional Chinese medicine
Contains CNS-acting alkaloids such as tetrahydroprotoberberine & dl-tetrahydropalmatine which may have analgesic & antidopaminergic properties