Follow Mfr's instructions (eg, 800 mg PO BID)
1-2 g of berry PO TID
One cup PO TID
Steep 1 tsp crushed berry (2-3 g) in 150 mL boiling water x 10 min.
20-100 mg; no more than 4 weeks
Liquid Extract (1:1 in 25% alcohol)
2-4 mL PO TID
Tincture (1:5 in 45% alcohol)
1-2 mL PO TID
Berry oil (1:5 in 45% alcohol)
0.03-0.2 mL PO TID
Dyspepsia, flatulence, heartburn, bloating, loss of appetite, UTIs, kidney and bladder stones, snakebite, intestinal worms, gastrointestinal infections, diabetes, and cancer
Topically: Rheumatic pains, inflammatory diseases, & wounds
Insufficient reliable information about effectiveness
Has diuretic properties
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
May cause uterine contractions
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: avoid
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action