No typical dosage recommendations
Classical dosage of the leaf was 2 g
headache, bedwetting, depression, nervous dyspepsia, atonic constipation, for prophylaxis and treatment of sexual disturbances, strengthening and stimulation during exertion, boosting and maintaining mental and physical capacity, and as an aphrodisiac
Insufficient reliable information to rate efficacy
Serious - Use Alternative
Significant - Monitor Closely
Excessive doses may cause insomnia & headache
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: no harmful effects known
Lactation: no harmful effects known
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Reportedly has stimulant, antidepressant, thymoleptic, testosteromimetic, euphoric & nervous restorative properties