1 cup PO up to 6x/day; 1.5 g leaves/150 mL water
4-8 ml PO TID; 1:1 in 25% alcohol
Ease Labor & Delivery
2 g dried leaf/240 ml water
Cardiovascular disorders, diarrhea, dysmenorrhea, GI disorders, labor and delivery support, menorrhagia, miscarriage prevention, morning sickness, mouth/throat/skin inflammation (topical), respiratory disorders
Little benefit vs. placebo
Breast cancer, endometriosis, hormone sensitive conditions, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, uterine fibroids
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category: Australian study showed no adverse outcomes from use during pregnancy
A:Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.
B:May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.
C:Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.
D:Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.
X:Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.
NA:Information not available.
Mechanism of Action
Active compounds unknown; anti-inflammatory; mixed action on smooth muscle