Hemodynamics (Echo)

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1.LVOT Diameter?
2.LVOT Subvalvular Velocity Time Integral?
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Normal cardiac output is 4-8 L/min

Normal cardiac index is 2.5-4 L/min/m2

Normal stroke volume is 60-100 ml/beat

Normal stroke volume index is 33-47 ml/beat/m2

A Low CO/CI may be observed with hypovolemia, hypoperfusion, shock, arrhythmia, and severe metabolic acidosis

A High CO/CI may be observed with hypoxia, the use of positive inotropes, early septic shock and anemia

A Low SV/SVI may be observed with impaired LV contractility, acidosis, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, increased afterload, decreased preload and tachycardia

A High SV/SVI may be observed with bradycardia, the use of positive inotropes, and decreases in afterload


Oh J, Seward JB, Tajik AJ.

The Echo Manual 3rd edition

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