R₂eD AVM Hemorrhage Risk

Estimate risk of hemorrhage in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations

The global unit selector only affects unanswered questions
1.White Race?
2.Exclusive Deep Location of AVM?
3.AVM Maximum Diameter <3 cm?
4.Venous drainage exclusively deep?
5."Mono-arterial" lesion?
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1. White Race?

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About this Calculator

The management of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains unclear and there may be benefit in developing a predictive tool that could guide hemorrhage risk stratification. The variables used to estimate the risk of presentation with hemorrhage can be summarized by the acronym ReD AVM.

  • Race
  • Exclusive deep location
  • AVM size
  • Venous drainage (exclusive deep vs other)
  • Monoarterial feeding

This tool is meant to supplement clinical decision-making in the treatment of unruptured AVMs. It is best used in conjunction with risk estimates of surgical risk such as the Spetzler-Martin grade.


Feghali J., Yang W., Xu R., Liew J., McDougall C.G., Caplan J.M., Tamargo R.J., Huang J.

R2eD AVM Score. A Novel Predictive Tool for Arteriovenous Malformation Presentation With Hemorrhage

Stroke. 2019; 50:1703-1710 doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025054

Contributed By:
  • James Feghali, M.D.
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