Cardiac Risk Index in Noncardiac Surgery (Goldman, et. al.)

Select Criteria:
Age > 70 years (5 points)
Myocardial infarction within 6 months (10 points)
Cardiac Exam
Signs of CHF: ventricular gallop or JVD (11 points)
Significant aortic stenosis (3 points)
Arrhythmia other than sinus or premature atrial contractions (7 points)
5 or more PVC's per minute (7 points)
General Medical Conditions
PO2 < 60; PCO2 > 50; K < 3; HCO3 < 20; BUN > 50; Creat > 3; elevated SGOT; chronic liver disease; bedridden (3 points)
Emergency (4 points)
Intraperitoneal, intrathoracic or aortic (3 points)
Results: Total Criteria Point Count:
Risk Index
0-5 Points:Class I 1% Complications
6-12 Points:Class II 7% Complications
13-25 Points:Class III 14% Complications
26-53 Points:Class IV 78% Complications
  1. Goldman L, Caldera DL, Nussbaum SR, et. al. Multifactorial index of cardiac risk in noncardiac surgical procedures. N. Engl J Med. 297:845, 1977.
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