Grapefruit (Herb/Suppl)

Brand and Other Names:citrus paradisi, pomelo, more...toronja
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Suggested Dosing

No typical dosage

>4 glasses juice/day for pharmacologic effects OR

1 to 9 glasses daily, or 240 mL of double-strength juice BID

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Suggested Uses

Atherosclerosis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, cancer, fiber supplement, hematocrit reduction, hypercholesterolemia, potassium supplement, psoriasis, vitamin C supplement, weight loss aid

Efficacy

Insufficient reliable evidence

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Interactions

Interaction Checker

and Grapefruit

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            Contraindicated (13)

            • cobimetinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cobimetinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated. Avoid coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with (increases cobimetinib systemic exposure by 6.7-fold).

            • eliglustat

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of eliglustat by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors are contraindicated with eliglustat poor or intermediate metabolizers; reduce eliglustat dose from 84 mg BID to 84 mg once daily in extensive metabolizers; eliglustat is contraindiated if strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors are given concomitantly with strong or moderate CYP3A inhibitors

            • fexofenadine

              grapefruit will decrease the level or effect of fexofenadine by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Contraindicated. Coadministration with grapefruit, apple, or orange juice reduces bioavailability of fexofenadine by inhibiting P-gp; separate administration by at least 4 hr

            • finerenone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of finerenone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated.

            • flibanserin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of flibanserin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated. Coadministration of flibanserin with moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated. Severe hypotension or syncope can occur.

            • isavuconazonium sulfate

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of isavuconazonium sulfate by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated.

            • lomitapide

              grapefruit increases levels of lomitapide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated. Increases lomitapide levels several folds.

            • lonafarnib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lonafarnib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated. Lonafarnib is a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration with strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated.

            • naloxegol

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of naloxegol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated. Coadministration of naloxegol with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors can significantly increase naloxegol systemic exposure which may precipitate opioid withdrawal symptoms

            • panobinostat

              grapefruit increases levels of panobinostat by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated. Strong CYP3A4 inducers can reduce panobinostat levels by ~70% and lead to treatment failure.

            • regorafenib

              grapefruit, regorafenib. affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors increase regorafenib levels and decrease exposure of the active metabolites M-2 and M-5.

            • venetoclax

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of venetoclax by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated. Use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated with venetoclax during the initial ramp-up dosing phase. Avoid grapefruit products, Seville oranges, and starfruit during treatment with venetoclax as they contain inhibitors of CYP3A.

            • voclosporin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of voclosporin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Contraindicated.

            Serious - Use Alternative (88)

            • abemaciclib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of abemaciclib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors increase plasma levels of abemaciclib and its metabolites. Patient should avoid grapefruit products.

            • acalabrutinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of acalabrutinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of acalabrutinib with strong CYP3A inhibitors. If a strong CYP3A inhibitor must be used short-term (eg, up to 7 days), temporarily interrupt treatment with acalabrutinib.

            • afatinib

              grapefruit increases levels of afatinib by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Reduce afatinib daily dose by 10 mg if not tolerated when coadministered with P-gp inhibitors.

            • avapritinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of avapritinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of avapritinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • axitinib

              grapefruit increases levels of axitinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If unable to avoid coadministration with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor closely and reduce dose if necessary .

            • bosutinib

              grapefruit increases levels of bosutinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

              grapefruit increases levels of bosutinib by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • brigatinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of brigatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If concomitant use of a strong CYP3A inhibitor cannot be avoided, reduce the brigatinib once daily dose by about 50% (ie, from 180 mg to 90 mg, or from 90 mg to 60 mg). After discontinuation of a strong CYP3A inhibitor, resume the brigatinib dose that was tolerated prior to initiating the strong CYP3A inhibitor.

            • ceritinib

              grapefruit increases levels of ceritinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice while taking ceritinib.

            • colchicine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of colchicine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid use of colchicine with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If coadministration is necessary, decrease colchicine dose or frequency as recommended in prescribing information. Use of any colchicine product in conjunction with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated in patients with renal or hepatic impairment.

            • copanlisib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of copanlisib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If concomitant use with strong CYP3A inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce copanlisib dose to 45 mg.

            • cyclosporine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cyclosporine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • daridorexant

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of daridorexant by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • deflazacort

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of deflazacort by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid consuming grapefruit and grapefruit juice while taking deflazacort.

            • dextromethorphan

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dextromethorphan by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • dihydroergotamine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dihydroergotamine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • dihydroergotamine intranasal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dihydroergotamine intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • dronedarone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dronedarone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • edoxaban

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of edoxaban by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Dose adjustment may be required with strong P-gp inhibitors. DVT/PE treatment: Decrease dose to 30 mg PO once daily. NVAF: No dose reduction recommended

            • elagolix

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of elagolix by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • encorafenib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of encorafenib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If concomitant use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is unavoidable, reduce encorafenib dose to one-third of the dose (eg, reduce from 450 mg/day to 150 mg/day). After discontinuing the inhibitor for 3-5 elimination half-lives, resume previous encorafenib dose.

            • enfortumab vedotin

              grapefruit increases toxicity of enfortumab vedotin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Enfortumab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate that releases monomethylauristatin E (MMAE) via proteolytic cleavage. MMAE is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4 in vitro. Coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase free MMAE exposure, which may increase the incidence or severity of toxicities.

            • entrectinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of entrectinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid grapefruit products with entrectinib, a CYP3A4 substrate.

            • erdafitinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of erdafitinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If unable to avoid coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, monitor closely for adverse reactions and consider decreasing dose accordingly. If strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing erdafitinib dose in the absence of any drug-related toxicities.

            • ergotamine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ergotamine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin base

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of erythromycin base by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin ethylsuccinate

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of erythromycin ethylsuccinate by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin lactobionate

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of erythromycin lactobionate by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin stearate

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of erythromycin stearate by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • everolimus

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of everolimus by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • fedratinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fedratinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If unable to avoid fedratinib coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, decrease fedratinib dose to 200 mg/day. If CYP3A4 inhibitor discontinued, increase fedratinib dose to 300 mg/day for 2 weeks, and then 400 mg/day thereafter as tolerated.

            • fentanyl

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fentanyl by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors with fentanyl is necessary, monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals and consider fentanyl dose adjustments until stable drug effects are achieved.

            • fentanyl intranasal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fentanyl intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors with fentanyl is necessary, monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals and consider fentanyl dose adjustments until stable drug effects are achieved.

            • fentanyl transdermal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fentanyl transdermal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors with fentanyl is necessary, monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals and consider fentanyl dose adjustments until stable drug effects are achieved.

            • fentanyl transmucosal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fentanyl transmucosal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors with fentanyl is necessary, monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals and consider fentanyl dose adjustments until stable drug effects are achieved.

            • fexinidazole

              grapefruit will decrease the level or effect of fexinidazole by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If unable to avoid coadministration, monitor fexinidazole for decreased efficacy owing to decreased plasma concentrations of active M1 and M2 metabolites.

            • gilteritinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of gilteritinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Consider alternatives to any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor when coadministered with gilteritinib. If such a combination cannot be avoided, closely monitor for gilteritinib-related adverse effects. Interrupt and reduce gilteritinib dosage in patients with serious or life-threatening toxicity.

            • glasdegib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of glasdegib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Consider alternate therapies that are not strong CYP3A inhibitors or monitor for increased risk of adverse effects, including QTc interval prolongation.

            • ibrutinib

              grapefruit increases levels of ibrutinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid concomitant use of ibrutinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor must be used short-term (eg, anti-infectives for =7 days), interrupt ibrutinib therapy until strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued.

            • infigratinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of infigratinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • istradefylline

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of istradefylline by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ivabradine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ivabradine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of ivabradine with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • ivacaftor

              grapefruit increases levels of ivacaftor by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid grapefruit, grapefruit juice, or Seville oranges while taking ivacaftor.

            • ivosidenib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ivosidenib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with ivosidenib or replace with alternate therapies. If coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is unavoidable, reduce ivosidenib dose to 250 mg qDay. If the strong inhibitor is discontinued, increase ivosidenib dose (after at least 5 half-lives of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) to the recommended dose of 500 mg qDay. Monitor for increased risk of QTc interval prolongation.

            • larotrectinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of larotrectinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If coadministration of larotrectinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is unavoidable, reduce larotrectinib dose by 50%. Resume prior larotrectinib dose once CYP3A4 inhibitor discontinued for 3-5 half-lives.

            • lefamulin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lefamulin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of lefamulin with strong CYP3A inhibitors.

            • lemborexant

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lemborexant by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of lemborexant with moderate or strong CYP3A inhibitors.

            • levamlodipine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of levamlodipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration with moderate and strong CYP3A inhibitors results in increased systemic exposure to amlodipine and may require dose reduction. Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema when amlodipine is coadministered with CYP3A inhibitors to determine the need for dose adjustment.

            • lorlatinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lorlatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministering lorlatinib with strong CYP3A inhibitors. If unavoidable, reduce lorlatinib dose by 25 mg/day. If strong CYP3A inhibitor discontinued, increase to previous lorlatinib (dose after 3 plasma half-lives of strong CYP3A inhibitor). See monograph for further details.

            • lovastatin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lovastatin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid large quantities of grapefruit juice (ie, >1 quart daily)

            • lurasidone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lurasidone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice when taking lurasidone.

            • lurbinectedin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lurbinectedin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • midazolam intranasal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

            • midostaurin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of midostaurin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, monitor midostaurin for increased risk of adverse reactions, especially during the first week of treatment.

            • mobocertinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of mobocertinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • neratinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of neratinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of neratinib with strong/moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • olaparib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of olaparib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If coadministration with strong CYP3A inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce olaparib dose to 150 mg (capsule) or 100 mg (tablet) PO BID. Do not substitute tablets with capsules.

            • osilodrostat

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of osilodrostat by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • osimertinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of osimertinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of osimertinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If no other alternative treatment exists, monitor patient more closely for adverse effects.

            • oxycodone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of oxycodone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • palbociclib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of palbociclib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of palbociclib with strong CYP3A inhibitors. If unable to avoid, reduce palbociclib dose to 75 mg/day.

            • pazopanib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of pazopanib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of pazopanib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible; if must coadminister, decrease pazopanib dose to 400 mg/day

            • pemigatinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of pemigatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • pexidartinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of pexidartinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • pimavanserin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of pimavanserin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Decrease dose to 17 mg/day if pimavanserin is coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • pimozide

              grapefruit increases levels of pimozide by decreasing metabolism. Contraindicated. Risk of QT interval prolongation.

            • pomalidomide

              grapefruit increases levels of pomalidomide by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ponatinib

              grapefruit increases levels of ponatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Decrease ponatinib starting dose to 30 mg qDay if coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided.

            • pralsetinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of pralsetinib by Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Combined CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitors increase levels of pralsetinib, a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate. If unable to avoid, reduce dose (see pralsetinib prescribing information). After combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitor discontinued, resume previous pralsetinib dose.

            • primaquine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of primaquine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ranolazine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ranolazine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ribociclib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ribociclib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If a strong CYP3A inhibitor must be coadministered with ribociclib, reduce the ribociclib starting dose to 400 mg/day. Also avoid pomegranates or pomegranate juice, and grapefruits.

            • rimegepant

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of rimegepant by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of rimegepant by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • riociguat

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of riociguat by decreasing metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of riociguat (substrate of CYP isoenzymes 1A1, 2C8, 3A, 2J2) with strong CYP inhibitors may require a decreased initial dose of 0.5 mg PO TID; monitor for signs of hypotension and reduce dose if needed

            • ruxolitinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ruxolitinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Reduce ruxolitinib starting dose to 10 mg BID with platelet count 100 X 10^9/L or more and concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors; avoid with platelet counts <100 X 10^9/L

            • ruxolitinib topical

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ruxolitinib topical by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Reduce ruxolitinib starting dose to 10 mg BID with platelet count 100 X 10^9/L or more and concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors; avoid with platelet counts <100 X 10^9/L

            • selumetinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of selumetinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If coadministration with strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce selumetinib dosage (refer to selumetinib monograph for further information). After discontinuation of the strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor for 3 elimination half-lives, resume selumetinib dose that was taken before initiating the inhibitor.

            • silodosin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of silodosin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • simvastatin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of simvastatin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid consuming large quantities of grapefruit or juice (ie, >1 quart/day)

            • siponimod

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of siponimod by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of siponimod with a moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor PLUS a moderate or strong CYP2C9 inhibitor is not recommended.

            • sirolimus

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of sirolimus by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • sonidegib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of sonidegib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of sonidegib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • suvorexant

              grapefruit increases levels of suvorexant by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Suvorexant not recommended with use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • tazemetostat

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of tazemetostat by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • tepotinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of tepotinib by Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Interaction not studied clinically. Metabolism and data suggest drugs that are strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitors may increase tepotinib (a P-gp and CYP3A4 substrate) effects and risk of toxicities.

            • tezacaftor

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of tezacaftor by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of tezacaftor with grapefruit juice, which contains 1 or more components that moderately inhibit CYP3A, may increase exposure of tezacaftor. Avoid food containing grapefruit or Seville oranges.

            • tolvaptan

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of tolvaptan by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • trabectedin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of trabectedin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If strong CYP3A inhibitor must be used, short-term (eg, less than 14 days), administer strong CYP3A inhibitor 1 week after trabectedin infusion, and discontinue the day prior to next trabectedin infusion

            • zanubrutinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of zanubrutinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            Monitor Closely (155)

            • albendazole

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of albendazole by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • almotriptan

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of almotriptan by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • alprazolam

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of alprazolam by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • amiodarone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of amiodarone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • amitriptyline

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of amitriptyline by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • apalutamide

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of apalutamide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of apalutamide with strong CYP3A4 or CYP2C8 inhibitors does not require initial dosage modification; however, dose reduction may be needed based on tolerability.

            • aprepitant

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of aprepitant by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • aripiprazole

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of aripiprazole by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • artemether/lumefantrine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of artemether/lumefantrine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • atogepant

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of atogepant by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Recommended atogepant dosage is 10 mg PO qDay when coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • atorvastatin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of atorvastatin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • avanafil

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of avanafil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. CYP3A4 inhibitors may reduce avanafil clearance increasing systemic exposure to avanafil; increased levels may result in increased associated adverse events; the maximum recommended dose of STENDRA is 50 mg, not to exceed once every 24 hours for patients taking concomitant moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors

            • bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase hydrocodone (benzhydrocodone is prodrug of hydrocodone) plasma concentrations and can result in potentially fatal respiratory depression.

            • berotralstat

              grapefruit increases levels of berotralstat by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Reduced berotralstat dose to 110 mg/day when coadministered with P-gp inhibitors.

            • betrixaban

              grapefruit increases levels of betrixaban by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor. Decrease betrixaban dose to 80 mg PO once, then 40 mg PO qDay if coadministered with a P-gp inhibitor.

            • bexarotene

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of bexarotene by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • bortezomib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of bortezomib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • brexpiprazole

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of brexpiprazole by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Administer half of the usual brexpiprazole dose when coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If also administered with a strong/moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, administer a quarter of brexpiprazole dose.

            • budesonide

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of budesonide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • buprenorphine subdermal implant

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of buprenorphine subdermal implant by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Monitor patients already on buprenorphine subdermal implant who require newly-initiated treatment with CYP3A4 inhibitors for signs and symptoms of overmedication. If the dose of the concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be reduced or discontinued, implant removal may be necessary and the patient should then be treated with a buprenorphine dosage form that permits dose adjustments. If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued in a patient who has been stabilized on buprenorphine, monitor the patient for withdrawal.

            • buprenorphine, long-acting injection

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of buprenorphine, long-acting injection by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Patients who transfer to buprenorphine long-acting injection from transmucosal buprenorphine coadministered with CYP3A4 inhibitors should be monitored to ensure buprenorphine plasma levels are adequate. Within 2 weeks, if signs and symptoms of buprenorphine toxicity or overdose occur and the concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be reduced or discontinued, transition the patient back to a buprenorphine formulation that permits dose adjustments.

            • buspirone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of buspirone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cabazitaxel

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cabazitaxel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Caution should be exercised with concomitant use of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • cabozantinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cabozantinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Do not ingest grapefruit or grapefruit juice while taking caboznatinib

            • calcifediol

              grapefruit, calcifediol. affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. CYP450 inhibitors may inhibit enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism (CYP24A1 and CYP27B1). This may alter serum levels of calcifediol and decrease the conversion of calcifediol to calcitriol. Dose adjustment of calcifediol may be required, and serum 25­hydroxyvitamin D, intact PTH, and serum calcium concentrations should be closely monitored when initiating or discontinuing a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.

            • cannabidiol

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cannabidiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Consider reducing the cannabidiol dose when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.

            • carbamazepine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of carbamazepine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cariprazine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cariprazine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors requires cariprazine dose reduction. See Dosage Modification section in drug monograph.

            • ceritinib

              grapefruit increases levels of ceritinib by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cilostazol

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cilostazol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cinacalcet

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cinacalcet by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • clomipramine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of clomipramine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • clopidogrel

              grapefruit will decrease the level or effect of clopidogrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Inhibition of CYP3A4 will reduce clopidogrel bioactivation

            • clozapine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of clozapine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • conivaptan

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of conivaptan by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • conjugated estrogens

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of conjugated estrogens by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • conjugated estrogens, vaginal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of conjugated estrogens, vaginal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cortisone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cortisone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • crizotinib

              grapefruit increases levels of crizotinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Concomitant use of strong CYP3A inhibitors should be avoided. .

            • dabigatran

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dabigatran by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor. Atrial fibrillation: Avoid coadministering dabigatran with P-gp inhibitors if CrCl <30 mL/min. DVT/PE treatment: Avoid coadministering dabigatran with P-gp inhibitors if CrCl <50 mL/min

            • darifenacin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of darifenacin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • darolutamide

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of darolutamide by Other (see comment). Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Darolutamide is a P-gp and CYP3A4 substrate. Closely monitor for increased adverse reactions and modify dose of darolutamide as needed when coadministered with drugs that are both P-gp and strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • darunavir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of darunavir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dasatinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dasatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • desipramine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of desipramine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dexamethasone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dexamethasone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • diazepam

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of diazepam by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • diazepam intranasal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of diazepam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors may decrease rate of diazepam elimination, thereby increasing adverse reactions to diazepam.

            • diltiazem

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of diltiazem by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • doravirine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of doravirine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of doravirine and CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase plasma concentrations and toxicities of doravirine.

            • doxorubicin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of doxorubicin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • doxorubicin liposomal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of doxorubicin liposomal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dronabinol

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dronabinol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Dronabinol is a CYP3A4 substrate.

            • duvelisib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of duvelisib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increases duvelisib AUC, which may increase the risk of duvelisib toxicities. Reduce duvelisib dose to 15 mg BID when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of duvelisib by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • eletriptan

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of eletriptan by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • elvitegravir

              grapefruit increases levels of elvitegravir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Elvitegravir is a CYP3A4 substrate; if coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels.

            • eplerenone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of eplerenone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Monitor for hyperkalemia

            • erlotinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of erlotinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • estradiol

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of estradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • estradiol vaginal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of estradiol vaginal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and toxicities.

            • estrogens conjugated synthetic

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of estrogens conjugated synthetic by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • estrogens esterified

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of estrogens esterified by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • estropipate

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of estropipate by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ethinylestradiol

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • etonogestrel

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • etravirine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of etravirine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • felodipine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of felodipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fesoterodine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fesoterodine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fludrocortisone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fludrocortisone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fluticasone furoate

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fluticasone furoate by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase fluticasone systemic exposure

            • fluticasone inhaled

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fluticasone inhaled by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase fluticasone systemic exposure

            • fluvoxamine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fluvoxamine by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fosamprenavir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fosamprenavir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fostamatinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of fostamatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase exposure to R406 (fostamatinib major active metabolite). Monitor for toxicities that may require fostamatinib dose reduction.

            • gefitinib

              grapefruit increases levels of gefitinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase risk for gefitinib adverse effects.

            • glecaprevir/pibrentasvir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • guanfacine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of guanfacine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors significantly increase guanfacine plasma concentrations. FDA-approved labeling for extended-release (ER) guanfacine recommends that, if coadministered, the guanfacine dosage should be decreased to half of the recommended dose. Specific recommendations for immediate-release (IR) guanfacine are not available.

            • hydrocodone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of hydrocodone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and can result in potentially fatal respiratory depression

            • hydrocortisone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of hydrocortisone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • hydroxyprogesterone caproate

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of hydroxyprogesterone caproate by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ifosfamide

              grapefruit will decrease the level or effect of ifosfamide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of CYP3A4 inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of ifosfamide to its active alkylating metabolites and decrease the efficacy of ifosfamide.

            • iloperidone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of iloperidone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • imipramine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of imipramine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • indinavir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of indinavir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ixabepilone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ixabepilone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ketamine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ketamine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ketoconazole

              grapefruit decreases levels of ketoconazole by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • lapatinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lapatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • levonorgestrel oral/ethinylestradiol/ferrous bisglycinate

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of levonorgestrel oral/ethinylestradiol/ferrous bisglycinate by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase the plasma hormone concentrations. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • lopinavir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lopinavir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • loratadine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of loratadine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • lumacaftor/ivacaftor

              grapefruit increases levels of lumacaftor/ivacaftor by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Strong CYP3A inhibitors do not impact lumacaftor exposure, but increased ivacaftor exposure by 4.3-fold. Due to the induction effect of lumacaftor on CYP3A, at steady-state the net exposure of ivacaftor is not expected to exceed that when given in the absence of lumacaftor at a dose of 150 mg q12hr (the approved dose of ivacaftor monotherapy). Therefore, no dose adjustment is necessary when CYP3A inhibitors are initiated in patients currently taking lumacaftor/ivacaftor. However, when initiating lumacaftor/ivacaftor in patients taking strong CYP3A inhibitors, reduce the dose to 1 tablet daily (lumacaftor 200 mg/ivacaftor 125 mg total daily dose) for the first week of treatment to allow for the steady-state induction effect of lumacaftor. Following this period, continue with the recommended daily dose. No dose adjustment is required for moderate or weak CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • lumefantrine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of lumefantrine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • maraviroc

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of maraviroc by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • medroxyprogesterone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of medroxyprogesterone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Use alternative if available.

            • mefloquine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of mefloquine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • mestranol

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of mestranol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • methadone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of methadone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • methylprednisolone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of methylprednisolone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • midazolam

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of midazolam by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • mifepristone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of mifepristone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • naldemedine

              grapefruit increases levels of naldemedine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Monitor naldemedine for potential adverse effects if coadministered with strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors.

              grapefruit increases levels of naldemedine by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor. Monitor naldemedine for potential adverse effects if coadministered with P-gp inhibitors.

            • nelfinavir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of nelfinavir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • netupitant/palonosetron

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of netupitant/palonosetron by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Netupitant is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4; no dosage adjustment is required

            • nicardipine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of nicardipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nifedipine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of nifedipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration doubles nifedipine AUC and Cmax with no change in half-life; avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice while taking nifedipine

            • nilotinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of nilotinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nintedanib

              grapefruit increases levels of nintedanib by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. If nintedanib adverse effects occur, management may require interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy .

            • nisoldipine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of nisoldipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • polatuzumab vedotin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of polatuzumab vedotin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Polatuzumab undergoes catabolism to small peptides, amino acids, monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), and unconjugated MMAE-related catabolites. MMAE is a CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration of polatuzumab vedotin with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor may increase unconjugated MMAE AUC, which may increase polatuzumab vedotin toxicities.

            • praziquantel

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of praziquantel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • prednisolone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of prednisolone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • prednisone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of prednisone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • propafenone

              grapefruit increases levels of propafenone by enhancing GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • quazepam

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of quazepam by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • quetiapine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of quetiapine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • quinidine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of quinidine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • red yeast rice

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of red yeast rice by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. May increase creatine kinase levels and increase risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis; red yeast rice contains monocolin K (reportedly identical to lovastatin)

            • repaglinide

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of repaglinide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • rifaximin

              grapefruit increases levels of rifaximin by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ripretinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ripretinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration with a strong CYP3A inhibitor will increase systemic exposure to ripretinib and its active metabolite (DP-5439), which may increase risk of adverse reactions.

            • ritonavir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ritonavir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • rivaroxaban

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of rivaroxaban by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • romidepsin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of romidepsin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • saquinavir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of saquinavir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • sertraline

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of sertraline by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • sildenafil

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of sildenafil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • solifenacin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of solifenacin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • sorafenib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of sorafenib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • sufentanil SL

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of sufentanil SL by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of sufentanil SL with any CYP3A4 inhibitor may increase sufentanil plasma concentration, and, thereby increase or prolonged adverse effects, including potentially fatal respiratory depression.

            • sunitinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of sunitinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tacrolimus

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of tacrolimus by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tadalafil

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of tadalafil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • talazoparib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of talazoparib by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor. Talazoparib is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate; coadministration with P-gp inhibitors may increase talazoparib systemic exposure.

            • tamoxifen

              grapefruit, tamoxifen. affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. CYP3A4 inhibition decreases metabolism of tamoxifen to N-desmethyl tamoxifen (active metabolite with similar biologic activity).

            • tamsulosin

              grapefruit increases levels of tamsulosin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Dose reduction may be needed for coadministered drugs that are predominantly metabolized by CYP3A.

            • temsirolimus

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of temsirolimus by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • teniposide

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of teniposide by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • terbinafine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of terbinafine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • theophylline

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of theophylline by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ticagrelor

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ticagrelor by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tinidazole

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of tinidazole by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tipranavir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of tipranavir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tisotumab vedotin

              grapefruit increases levels of tisotumab vedotin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Tisotumab vedotin?s active metabolite (MMAE) is a CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase unconjugated MMAE systemic exposure and increase risk of adverse effects.

            • tofacitinib

              grapefruit increases levels of tofacitinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. No specific dose adjustment recommended when tofacitinib coadministered with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors; decrease tofacitinib dose if coadministered with both moderate CYP3A4 and potent CYP2C19 inhibitors.

            • tolterodine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of tolterodine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • trazodone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of trazodone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • triazolam

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of triazolam by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • valbenazine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of valbenazine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Reduce valbenazine dose to 40 mg once daily when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.

            • vardenafil

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of vardenafil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • vemurafenib

              grapefruit increases levels of vemurafenib by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • verapamil

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of verapamil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • warfarin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of warfarin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            Minor (53)

            • alfentanil

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of alfentanil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • alfuzosin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of alfuzosin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • alosetron

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of alosetron by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • amlodipine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of amlodipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • armodafinil

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of armodafinil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • atazanavir

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of atazanavir by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • bosentan

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of bosentan by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • caffeine

              grapefruit increases levels of caffeine by decreasing metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • cevimeline

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of cevimeline by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • clarithromycin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of clarithromycin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • dapsone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dapsone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • disopyramide

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of disopyramide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • docetaxel

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of docetaxel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • donepezil

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of donepezil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • dutasteride

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of dutasteride by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • efavirenz

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of efavirenz by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • etoposide

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of etoposide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • eucalyptus

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of eucalyptus by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • finasteride

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of finasteride by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • galantamine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of galantamine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • green tea

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of green tea by Other (see comment). Minor/Significance Unknown. This food-drug interaction might potentiate the clinical effects and duration of action of caffeine.

            • imatinib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of imatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • isradipine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of isradipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • ixazomib

              grapefruit, ixazomib. affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown. In clinical trials, coadministration of ixazomib with strong CYP3A inhibitors did not result in a clinically meaningful change in the systemic exposure of ixazomib.

            • ketoconazole

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ketoconazole by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • kolanut

              grapefruit increases levels of kolanut by decreasing metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • losartan

              grapefruit will decrease the level or effect of losartan by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Losartan metabolized to active metabolite by CYP3A4 and CYP2C9

            • montelukast

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of montelukast by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • nimodipine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of nimodipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • nitrendipine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of nitrendipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • ondansetron

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ondansetron by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • oxybutynin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of oxybutynin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • paclitaxel

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of paclitaxel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • paclitaxel protein bound

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of paclitaxel protein bound by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • parecoxib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of parecoxib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • phenytoin

              grapefruit, phenytoin. Other (see comment). Minor/Significance Unknown. Comment: Grapefruit juice has been determined to have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin.

            • pimozide

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of pimozide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • pioglitazone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of pioglitazone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • propafenone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of propafenone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • quinine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of quinine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • rabeprazole

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of rabeprazole by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • ramelteon

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ramelteon by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • saxagliptin

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of saxagliptin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • sufentanil

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of sufentanil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • vandetanib

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of vandetanib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • vinblastine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of vinblastine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • vincristine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of vincristine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • vincristine liposomal

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of vincristine liposomal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • vinorelbine

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of vinorelbine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • zaleplon

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of zaleplon by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • ziprasidone

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ziprasidone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • zolpidem

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of zolpidem by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • zonisamide

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of zonisamide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

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            Adverse Effects

            Decreased hematocrit

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            Warnings

            Contraindications

            None reported

            Cautions

            Concurrent CYP3A4 substrates

            Concurrent interactive agents

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            Pregnancy & Lactation

            Pregnancy Category: avoid excess

            Lactation: avoid excess

            Pregnancy Categories

            A: Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.

            B: May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.

            C: Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.

            D: Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.

            X: Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.

            NA: Information not available.

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            Pharmacology

            Metabolism: N/A

            Excretion: N/A

            Enzyme Inhibited: CYP3A4

            Mechanism of Action

            Source of potassium, vit C, pectin

            Pectin decrease cholesterol & promote regression of atherosclerosis

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            Medscape prescription drug monographs are based on FDA-approved labeling information, unless otherwise noted, combined with additional data derived from primary medical literature.