cryoprecipitate (Blood Component)

Brand and Other Names:CRYO
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Dosing & Uses

AdultPediatric

Fibrinogen Replacement

1 unit of cryo per 5kg patient weight will increase fibrinogen by about 100 mg/dL

Number of bags = 0.2 x weight (kg) to provide about 100mg/dL fibrinogen

Many institutions use a standard dose of 10 units and then repeat if needed

In conditions with increased fibrinogen turnover, fibrinogen levels should be monitored to adjust dosing

Factor XIII Replacement

1 unit of cryo per 5kg patient weight will provide 10 U/kg of factor XIII

Number of bags = 0.2 x weight (kg)

Factor XIII has a long half-life and can usually be dosed every 3-6 weeks. Dosing schedule can vary by patient. Consultation with a hematologist or transfusion medicine physician is recommended

Factor VIII Replacement

Consultation with a hematologist or hemostasis expert is recommended. Dosing depends on patient factor VIII (8) level and requires routine monitoring of factor VIII (8) to determine appropriate dose

Patients with inhibitors may not have adequate response requiring increased dosing or other measures

In emergency situations, assume a desired increase of 100% for a loading dose. Dosing also depends on Plasma Volume (PV) which is a fraction of Total Blood Volume (TBV). TBV is typically estimated at 70 mL/kg, although it may vary based on age, sex, and body type

TBV (mL) = 70 mL/kg x weight (kg)

PV (mL) = TBV x (1-Hct)

Number of bags = [Desired activity (%) – Current activity (%)] x PV / 80

Dosing should be repeated every 8-12 hours but will vary with each patient. Factor VIII activity (%) target depends on the indication

Post surgery or major trauma replacement may be required for up to 10 days to maintain hemostasis

von Willebrand Factor Replacement

Consultation with a hematologist or hemostasis expert is recommended. Dosing of 1 unit per 10kg patient weight will usually be enough to control bleeding

Number of bags = 0.1 x weight (kg)

Repeat dosing may be required every 8-12 hours for up to 3 days followed by once daily dosing. Follow clinically to adjust dosing and with appropriate lab studies available at your institution

Other Indications & Uses

Cryo is used most commonly for replacement of fibrinogen in patients that are bleeding or at increased risk of bleeding. Fibrinogen replacement may be indicated for hypofibrinogenemia or dysfibrinogenemia whether acquired or congenital. Many institutions transfuse cryo prior to administration of factor VIIa (7a) concentrate to ensure adequate fibrinogen for clot formation given the cost and short half-life of factor VIIa (7a) of about 4 hours

Cryo may be used to treat bleeding due to Hemophilia A (factor VIII (8) deficiency) or von Willebrand disease when appropriate factor concentrates are not available and/or desmopressin (DDAVP) is contraindicated or ineffective. If the patient needs routine replacement of either of these factors for prophylaxis, every effort should be made to provide recombinant factor or factor specific concentrates

Cryo may be used to treat or prevent bleeding due to Factor XIII (13) deficiency when factor XIII (13) concentrates are not available

Cryo may be considered to treat uremic bleeding when other modalities have failed

Commercially available, virus-inactivated fibrin sealants have replaced the use of cryo to make topical sealants for surgery

Fibrinogen Replacement

1 unit of cryo per 5 kg patient weight will increase fibrinogen by about 100 mg/dL

Number of bags = 0.2 x weight (kg) to provide about 100 mg/dL fibrinogen

In conditions with increased fibrinogen turnover, fibrinogen levels should be monitored to adjust dosing

Factor XIII Replacement

1 unit of cryo per 5kg patient weight will provide 10 U/kg of factor XIII

Number of bags =0.2 x weight (kg)

Factor XIII has a long half-life and can usually be dosed every 3-6 weeks. Dosing schedule can vary by patient. Consultation with a hematologist or transfusion medicine physician is recommended

Factor VIII Replacement

Consultation with a hematologist or transfusion medicine physician is recommended. Dosing depends on patient factor VIII (8) level and requires routine monitoring of factor VIII (8) to determine appropriate dose. Dosing should be repeated every 8-12 hours but will vary with each patient. Post surgery or major trauma replacement may be required for up to 10 days to maintain hemostasis. Factor VIII activity (%) target depends on the indication. Patients with inhibitors may not have adequate response requiring increased dosing or other measures. In emergency situations, assume a desired increase of 100% for a loading dose. Dosing also depends on Plasma Volume (PV) which is a fraction of Total Blood Volume (TBV). TBV varies by age and is typically estimated as: Premature infant 90-105 mL/kg, Term newborn infant 80-90 mL/kg, and >3 months of age 70 mL/kg

TBV (mL) = 70 mL/kg x weight (kg)

PV (mL) = TBV x (1-Hct)

Number of bags = [Desired activity (%) – Current activity (%)] x PV / 80

von Willebrand Factor Replacement

Consultation with a hematologist or hemostasis expert is recommended. Dosing of 1 unit per 10kg patient weight will usually be enough to control bleeding

Number of bags = 0.1 x weight (kg)

Repeat dosing may be required every 8-12 hours for up to 3 days followed by once daily dosing. Follow clinically to adjust dosing and with appropriate lab studies available at your institution

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Adverse Effects

Frequency Not Defined

Hemolytic transfusion reactions

Febrile non-hemolytic reactions

Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria to anaphylaxis

Septic reactions

Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

Circulatory overload

Transfusion associated graft versus host disease

Post-transfusion purpura

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Warnings

Contraindications

Cryo should not be given for replacement of isolated factor deficiencies of factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, or factor XIII if the appropriate factor concentrates are available

Cryo is deficient in all clotting factors other than fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and factor XIII and should not be used to treat deficiencies of other factors, nor used as the sole component when replacement of multiple factors is required

Cautions

If a transfusion reaction is suspected, the transfusion should be stopped, the patient assessed and stabilized, the blood bank notified, and a transfusion reaction investigation initiated

Massive or rapid transfusion may lead to arrhythmias, hypothermia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, dyspnea, and/or heart failure

Because each unit of cryo has low volume, ABO compatibility is not required except in neonates and small children unless high volumes of cryo are to be transfused

Factor XIII replacement may also be replaced with plasma transfusions if the patient is not at significant risk of volume overload because it may reduce the number of donor exposures

All of the factors in cryo are provided in equal or greater amounts in FFP; however the concentration is lower requiring more volume to obtain equivalent increases

All transfusions must be given via blood administration sets containing 170- to 260-micron filters or 20- to 40-micron microaggregate filters unless transfusion is given via a bedside leukocyte reduction filter. No other medications or fluids other than normal saline should be simultaneously given through the same line without prior consultation with the medical director of the blood bank

Patient’s should be monitored for signs of a transfusion reaction including vitals pre, during, and post transfusion

Non-septic infectious risks include transmission of HIV (~1:2 mill), HCV (~1:1.5 mill), HBV (1:300k), HTLV, WNV, CMV, parvovirus B19, Lyme disease, babesiosis, malaria, Chaga’s disease, vCJD

Consult with blood bank medical director or hematologist if you have questions regarding special transfusion requirements

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Pharmacology

Each unit (~10-15mL) provides:

Fibrinogen 150-250 mg with a half-life of 100-150 hours

Factor VIII (8) 80-150 U with a half-life of 12 hours

Von Willebrand factor 100-150 U with a half-life of 24 hours

Factor XIII (13) 50-75 U with a half-life of 150-300 hours

Cryo also contains fibronectin; however there are no clear indications for fibronectin replacement

Mechanism of Action

Each unit provides the above factors listed in the pharmacology section to support adequate hemostasis to treat or prevent bleeding

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Medscape prescription drug monographs are based on FDA-approved labeling information, unless otherwise noted, combined with additional data derived from primary medical literature.