midazolam intranasal (Rx)

Brand and Other Names:Nayzilam
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Dosing & Uses

AdultPediatricGeriatric

Dosage Forms & Strengths

intranasal solution: Schedule IV

  • 5mg/0.1mL per single-dose spray

Seizures

Indicated for acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (ie, seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) that are distinct from a patient’s usual seizure pattern in patients with epilepsy

Initial dose: 5 mg (1 spray) into 1 nostril

Second dose (if needed)

  • An additional 5 mg (1 spray) into the opposite nostril may be administered after 10 minutes if the patient has not responded to the initial dose
  • Do not administer second dose if the patient has breathing trouble or if excessive sedation occurs that is uncharacteristic of the patient during a seizure cluster episode

Maximum dose and frequency

  • Do not use >2 doses per single seizure episode
  • Do not treat more than 1 episode q3days and no more than 5 episodes/month

Dosing Considerations

For patients at increased risk of respiratory depression from benzodiazepines, administration under healthcare professional supervision should be considered before prescribing; this administration may be performed in the absence of a seizure episode

Instruct the individual who will administer midazolam intranasal on how to identify seizure clusters and use the product appropriately

Counsel patients and caregivers to carefully read instructions for use for complete directions on how to properly administer

Dosage Forms & Strengths

intranasal solution: Schedule IV

  • 5mg/0.1mL per single-dose spray

Seizures

Indicated for acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (ie, seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) that are distinct from a patient’s usual seizure pattern in patients with epilepsy aged ≥12 years

<12 years: Safety and efficacy not established

≥12 years

  • Initial dose: 5 mg (1 spray) into 1 nostril
  • Second dose (if needed)
    • An additional 5 mg (1 spray) into the opposite nostril may be administered after 10 minutes if the patient has not responded to the initial dose
    • Do not administer second dose if the patient has breathing trouble or if excessive sedation occurs that is uncharacteristic of the patient during a seizure cluster episode
  • Maximum dose and frequency
    • Do not use >2 doses per single seizure episode
    • Do not treat more than 1 episode q3days and no more than 5 episodes/month

Dosing Considerations

For patients at increased risk of respiratory depression from benzodiazepines, administration under healthcare professional supervision should be considered before prescribing; this administration may be performed in the absence of a seizure episode

Instruct the individual who will administer midazolam intranasal on how to identify seizure clusters and use the product appropriately

Counsel patients and caregivers to carefully read instructions for use for complete directions on how to properly administer

Safety and efficacy studies did not include sufficient numbers of participants aged ≥65 yr to determine whether they respond differently from younger individuals

Geriatric patients have longer elimination half-lives for midazolam and its metabolites, which may result in prolonged drug exposure

Geriatric patients may have altered drug distribution, diminished hepatic and/or renal function, and those aged >70 yr may be particularly sensitive

See adult dosing

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              • abametapir

                abametapir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. For 2 weeks after abametapir application, avoid taking drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates. If not feasible, avoid use of abametapir.

              • amiodarone

                amiodarone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • aprepitant

                aprepitant will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • atazanavir

                atazanavir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • bicalutamide

                bicalutamide will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ceritinib

                ceritinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • clarithromycin

                clarithromycin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • clotrimazole

                clotrimazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • clozapine

                clozapine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • cobicistat

                cobicistat will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • conivaptan

                conivaptan will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • crizotinib

                crizotinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • cyclosporine

                cyclosporine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • darunavir

                darunavir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • desipramine

                desipramine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • diltiazem

                diltiazem will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • doxycycline

                doxycycline will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • dronedarone

                dronedarone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • erythromycin base

                erythromycin base will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • erythromycin ethylsuccinate

                erythromycin ethylsuccinate will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • erythromycin lactobionate

                erythromycin lactobionate will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • erythromycin stearate

                erythromycin stearate will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • fluconazole

                fluconazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • fosamprenavir

                fosamprenavir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • fostamatinib

                fostamatinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • grapefruit

                grapefruit will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • haloperidol

                haloperidol will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • idelalisib

                idelalisib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • iloperidone

                iloperidone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • imatinib

                imatinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • indinavir

                indinavir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • isoniazid

                isoniazid will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • itraconazole

                itraconazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ivacaftor

                ivacaftor will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ketoconazole

                ketoconazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • lapatinib

                lapatinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • larotrectinib

                larotrectinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • letermovir

                letermovir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • lopinavir

                lopinavir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • metronidazole

                metronidazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • mifepristone

                mifepristone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • nefazodone

                nefazodone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • nelfinavir

                nelfinavir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • netupitant/palonosetron

                netupitant/palonosetron will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • posaconazole

                posaconazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • quinupristin/dalfopristin

                quinupristin/dalfopristin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ribociclib

                ribociclib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ritonavir

                ritonavir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • saquinavir

                saquinavir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • schisandra

                schisandra will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • selinexor

                selinexor, midazolam intranasal. unspecified interaction mechanism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Patients treated with selinexor may experience neurological toxicities. Avoid taking selinexor with other medications that may cause dizziness or confusion.

              • sertraline

                sertraline will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • sotorasib

                sotorasib will decrease the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If use is unavoidable, refer to the prescribing information of the CYP3A4 substrate for dosage modifications

              • stiripentol

                stiripentol will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • tetracycline

                tetracycline will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • tipranavir

                tipranavir will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • verapamil

                verapamil will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • voriconazole

                voriconazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              Monitor Closely (298)

              • acetaminophen

                acetaminophen will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • acetaminophen IV

                acetaminophen IV will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • acetaminophen rectal

                acetaminophen rectal will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • acetazolamide

                acetazolamide will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • acrivastine

                midazolam intranasal, acrivastine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • aldesleukin

                midazolam intranasal, aldesleukin. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • alfentanil

                midazolam intranasal, alfentanil. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • alprazolam

                alprazolam will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal will increase the level or effect of alprazolam by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • amitriptyline

                midazolam intranasal, amitriptyline. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • amlodipine

                amlodipine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • amobarbital

                midazolam intranasal, amobarbital. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • amoxapine

                midazolam intranasal, amoxapine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • anastrozole

                anastrozole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • apomorphine

                midazolam intranasal, apomorphine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • aripiprazole

                midazolam intranasal, aripiprazole. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • armodafinil

                armodafinil will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • asenapine

                midazolam intranasal, asenapine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • atorvastatin

                atorvastatin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • azelastine

                azelastine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • baclofen

                midazolam intranasal, baclofen. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • belladonna and opium

                midazolam intranasal, belladonna and opium. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen

                midazolam intranasal, benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • betamethasone

                betamethasone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • betamethasone topical

                betamethasone topical will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • bortezomib

                bortezomib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • brexanolone

                midazolam intranasal, brexanolone. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • brexpiprazole

                midazolam intranasal, brexpiprazole. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • brivaracetam

                midazolam intranasal, brivaracetam. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • bromocriptine

                bromocriptine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, bromocriptine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • brompheniramine

                midazolam intranasal, brompheniramine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • buprenorphine

                midazolam intranasal, buprenorphine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • buprenorphine buccal

                midazolam intranasal, buprenorphine buccal. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • buprenorphine subdermal implant

                midazolam intranasal, buprenorphine subdermal implant. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • buprenorphine transdermal

                midazolam intranasal, buprenorphine transdermal. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • buprenorphine, long-acting injection

                midazolam intranasal, buprenorphine, long-acting injection. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • buspirone

                midazolam intranasal, buspirone. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • butabarbital

                midazolam intranasal, butabarbital. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • butalbital

                midazolam intranasal, butalbital. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • butorphanol

                midazolam intranasal, butorphanol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration with opioids increases risk of respiratory depression. Use only when alternative treatment options are inadequate. Use minimum required dosing.

              • calcium/magnesium/potassium/sodium oxybates

                midazolam intranasal, calcium/magnesium/potassium/sodium oxybates. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • carbamazepine

                midazolam intranasal, carbamazepine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • cariprazine

                midazolam intranasal, cariprazine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • carisoprodol

                midazolam intranasal, carisoprodol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • cetirizine

                midazolam intranasal, cetirizine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • chloral hydrate

                midazolam intranasal, chloral hydrate. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • chloramphenicol

                chloramphenicol will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal causes higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • chlordiazepoxide

                midazolam intranasal, chlordiazepoxide. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • chlorpheniramine

                midazolam intranasal, chlorpheniramine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • chlorpromazine

                midazolam intranasal, chlorpromazine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • chlorzoxazone

                chlorzoxazone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, chlorzoxazone. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • cimetidine

                cimetidine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ciprofloxacin

                ciprofloxacin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • citalopram

                midazolam intranasal, citalopram. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • clemastine

                clemastine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, clemastine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • clobazam

                clobazam will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, clobazam. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • clomipramine

                midazolam intranasal, clomipramine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • clonazepam

                midazolam intranasal, clonazepam. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • clonidine

                midazolam intranasal, clonidine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • clorazepate

                midazolam intranasal, clorazepate. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • clozapine

                midazolam intranasal, clozapine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • cocaine

                cocaine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • codeine

                midazolam intranasal, codeine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • crofelemer

                crofelemer will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • cyclobenzaprine

                midazolam intranasal, cyclobenzaprine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • cyclophosphamide

                cyclophosphamide will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • cyproheptadine

                midazolam intranasal, cyproheptadine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • danazol

                danazol will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • dantrolene

                midazolam intranasal, dantrolene. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • darifenacin

                darifenacin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • dasatinib

                dasatinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • desflurane

                midazolam intranasal, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • desipramine

                midazolam intranasal, desipramine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • desloratadine

                midazolam intranasal, desloratadine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • desvenlafaxine

                desvenlafaxine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, desvenlafaxine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • deutetrabenazine

                midazolam intranasal, deutetrabenazine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • dexchlorpheniramine

                midazolam intranasal, dexchlorpheniramine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • dexlansoprazole

                dexlansoprazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • dexmedetomidine

                dexmedetomidine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, dexmedetomidine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • diazepam

                diazepam will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, diazepam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • diazepam intranasal

                midazolam intranasal, diazepam intranasal. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration with opioids increases risk of respiratory depression. Use only when alternative treatment options are inadequate. Use minimum required dosing.

                diazepam intranasal, midazolam intranasal. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration may potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of each drug.

              • dichloralphenazone

                midazolam intranasal, dichloralphenazone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • dichlorphenamide

                midazolam intranasal, dichlorphenamide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • diclofenac

                diclofenac will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • diclofenac topical

                diclofenac topical will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • difenoxin hcl

                midazolam intranasal, difenoxin hcl. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • dihydroergotamine

                dihydroergotamine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • dimenhydrinate

                midazolam intranasal, dimenhydrinate. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • diphenhydramine

                midazolam intranasal, diphenhydramine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • diphenoxylate hcl

                midazolam intranasal, diphenoxylate hcl. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • disulfiram

                disulfiram will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • divalproex sodium

                midazolam intranasal, divalproex sodium. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • docetaxel

                docetaxel will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • doxepin

                midazolam intranasal, doxepin. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • doxorubicin

                doxorubicin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • doxorubicin liposomal

                doxorubicin liposomal will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • doxylamine

                midazolam intranasal, doxylamine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • dronabinol

                midazolam intranasal, dronabinol. Either increases levels of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • droperidol

                midazolam intranasal, droperidol. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • drospirenone

                drospirenone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • duloxetine

                midazolam intranasal, duloxetine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • efavirenz

                midazolam intranasal, efavirenz. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ergotamine

                ergotamine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • escitalopram

                midazolam intranasal, escitalopram. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • esketamine intranasal

                midazolam intranasal, esketamine intranasal. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • eslicarbazepine acetate

                midazolam intranasal, eslicarbazepine acetate. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • estazolam

                midazolam intranasal, estazolam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • eszopiclone

                midazolam intranasal, eszopiclone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ethanol

                midazolam intranasal, ethanol. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ethinylestradiol

                ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ethosuximide

                midazolam intranasal, ethosuximide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ethotoin

                midazolam intranasal, ethotoin. Either increases levels of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • etomidate

                midazolam intranasal, etomidate. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • etoposide

                etoposide will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • felbamate

                midazolam intranasal, felbamate. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • felodipine

                felodipine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • fentanyl

                fentanyl will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, fentanyl. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • fentanyl intranasal

                midazolam intranasal, fentanyl intranasal. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • fentanyl transdermal

                midazolam intranasal, fentanyl transdermal. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • fentanyl transmucosal

                fentanyl transmucosal will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, fentanyl transmucosal. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • fexofenadine

                midazolam intranasal, fexofenadine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • flibanserin

                midazolam intranasal, flibanserin. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • fluoxetine

                fluoxetine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, fluoxetine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • fluphenazine

                midazolam intranasal, fluphenazine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • flurazepam

                midazolam intranasal, flurazepam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • fluvastatin

                fluvastatin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • fluvoxamine

                fluvoxamine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. May increase risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect

              • fosphenytoin

                midazolam intranasal, fosphenytoin. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • gabapentin

                midazolam intranasal, gabapentin. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

                gabapentin, midazolam intranasal. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of CNS depressants can result in serious, life-threatening, and fatal respiratory depression. Use lowest dose possible and monitor for respiratory depression and sedation.

              • gabapentin enacarbil

                midazolam intranasal, gabapentin enacarbil. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

                gabapentin enacarbil, midazolam intranasal. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of CNS depressants can result in serious, life-threatening, and fatal respiratory depression. Use lowest dose possible and monitor for respiratory depression and sedation.

              • glyburide

                glyburide will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • guanfacine

                midazolam intranasal, guanfacine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • haloperidol

                midazolam intranasal, haloperidol. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • hydralazine

                hydralazine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • hydrocodone

                midazolam intranasal, hydrocodone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • hydromorphone

                midazolam intranasal, hydromorphone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • hydroxyzine

                midazolam intranasal, hydroxyzine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ifosfamide

                ifosfamide will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • iloperidone

                midazolam intranasal, iloperidone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • imipramine

                midazolam intranasal, imipramine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • irbesartan

                irbesartan will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • isoflurane

                midazolam intranasal, isoflurane. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • isradipine

                isradipine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ketamine

                midazolam intranasal, ketamine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • lacosamide

                midazolam intranasal, lacosamide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • lamotrigine

                midazolam intranasal, lamotrigine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • lansoprazole

                lansoprazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • lenvatinib

                lenvatinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • levetiracetam

                midazolam intranasal, levetiracetam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • levocetirizine

                midazolam intranasal, levocetirizine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • levodopa

                midazolam intranasal, levodopa. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • levorphanol

                midazolam intranasal, levorphanol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of benzodiazepines and opioids increases risk of respiratory depression. Use only in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.

              • lidocaine

                lidocaine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • lithium

                midazolam intranasal, lithium. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • lomustine

                lomustine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • loratadine

                midazolam intranasal, loratadine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • lorazepam

                midazolam intranasal, lorazepam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • lorlatinib

                lorlatinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • losartan

                losartan will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • lovastatin

                lovastatin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • loxapine

                midazolam intranasal, loxapine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • loxapine inhaled

                midazolam intranasal, loxapine inhaled. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • loxicodegol

                midazolam intranasal, loxicodegol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of benzodiazepines and opioids increases risk of respiratory depression. Use only in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.

              • lurasidone

                lurasidone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, lurasidone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • maprotiline

                midazolam intranasal, maprotiline. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • mefloquine

                mefloquine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • meperidine

                midazolam intranasal, meperidine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of benzodiazepines and opioids increases risk of respiratory depression. Use only in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.

              • mestranol

                mestranol will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • methadone

                methadone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, methadone. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of benzodiazepines and opioids increases risk of respiratory depression. Use only in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.

              • methimazole

                methimazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • methocarbamol

                midazolam intranasal, methocarbamol. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • methohexital

                midazolam intranasal, methohexital. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • methoxsalen

                methoxsalen will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • methsuximide

                midazolam intranasal, methsuximide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • methyldopa

                midazolam intranasal, methyldopa. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • methylprednisolone

                methylprednisolone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • metoclopramide

                midazolam intranasal, metoclopramide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • metyrosine

                midazolam intranasal, metyrosine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • micafungin

                micafungin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • midazolam

                midazolam intranasal, midazolam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • mirtazapine

                mirtazapine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, mirtazapine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • mitoxantrone

                mitoxantrone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • modafinil

                modafinil will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • molindone

                midazolam intranasal, molindone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • morphine

                midazolam intranasal, morphine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • nabilone

                midazolam intranasal, nabilone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • nalbuphine

                midazolam intranasal, nalbuphine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • nefazodone

                midazolam intranasal, nefazodone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • nevirapine

                nevirapine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • nicardipine

                nicardipine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • nifedipine

                nifedipine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • nilotinib

                nilotinib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • nisoldipine

                nisoldipine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • nitrous oxide

                midazolam intranasal, nitrous oxide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • nizatidine

                nizatidine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • nortriptyline

                midazolam intranasal, nortriptyline. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • olanzapine

                olanzapine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, olanzapine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • oliceridine

                midazolam intranasal, oliceridine. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of benzodiazepines and opioids increases risk of respiratory depression. Use only in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.

              • omeprazole

                omeprazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • opium tincture

                midazolam intranasal, opium tincture. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • orphenadrine

                orphenadrine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, orphenadrine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • oxazepam

                midazolam intranasal, oxazepam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • oxcarbazepine

                midazolam intranasal, oxcarbazepine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • oxybutynin

                oxybutynin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, oxybutynin. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • oxybutynin transdermal

                oxybutynin transdermal will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • oxycodone

                midazolam intranasal, oxycodone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • oxymorphone

                midazolam intranasal, oxymorphone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • palbociclib

                palbociclib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • paliperidone

                midazolam intranasal, paliperidone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • paroxetine

                paroxetine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, paroxetine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • pazopanib

                pazopanib will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • pentamidine

                pentamidine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • pentazocine

                midazolam intranasal, pentazocine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • pentobarbital

                midazolam intranasal, pentobarbital. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • perampanel

                midazolam intranasal, perampanel. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • perphenazine

                midazolam intranasal, perphenazine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • pheniramine

                midazolam intranasal, pheniramine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • phenobarbital

                midazolam intranasal, phenobarbital. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • phenytoin

                midazolam intranasal, phenytoin. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • pilocarpine

                pilocarpine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • pilocarpine ophthalmic

                pilocarpine ophthalmic will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • pimavanserin

                midazolam intranasal, pimavanserin. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • pimozide

                pimozide will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, pimozide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • pramipexole

                midazolam intranasal, pramipexole. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • pravastatin

                pravastatin will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • pregabalin

                midazolam intranasal, pregabalin. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

                pregabalin, midazolam intranasal. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of CNS depressants can result in serious, life-threatening, and fatal respiratory depression. Use lowest dose possible and monitor for respiratory depression and sedation.

              • primaquine

                primaquine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • primidone

                midazolam intranasal, primidone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • prochlorperazine

                midazolam intranasal, prochlorperazine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • progesterone intravaginal gel

                progesterone intravaginal gel will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • progesterone micronized

                progesterone micronized will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • promethazine

                midazolam intranasal, promethazine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • propofol

                propofol will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, propofol. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • quazepam

                midazolam intranasal, quazepam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • quetiapine

                midazolam intranasal, quetiapine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • quinidine

                quinidine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • quinine

                quinine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • rabeprazole

                rabeprazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ramelteon

                midazolam intranasal, ramelteon. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ranolazine

                ranolazine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • rasagiline

                midazolam intranasal, rasagiline. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • remifentanil

                midazolam intranasal, remifentanil. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of benzodiazepines and opioids increases risk of respiratory depression. Use only in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.

                midazolam intranasal, remifentanil. Either increases toxicity of the other by Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • risperidone

                risperidone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, risperidone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ropinirole

                midazolam intranasal, ropinirole. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • rotigotine

                midazolam intranasal, rotigotine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • rufinamide

                rufinamide will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, rufinamide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • safinamide

                midazolam intranasal, safinamide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • scopolamine

                midazolam intranasal, scopolamine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • secobarbital

                midazolam intranasal, secobarbital. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • selegiline

                selegiline will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, selegiline. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • selegiline transdermal

                midazolam intranasal, selegiline transdermal. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • sertraline

                midazolam intranasal, sertraline. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • sevoflurane

                midazolam intranasal, sevoflurane. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • sirolimus

                sirolimus will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • sodium oxybate

                midazolam intranasal, sodium oxybate. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • sufentanil

                midazolam intranasal, sufentanil. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • sufentanil SL

                midazolam intranasal, sufentanil SL. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • sulconazole

                sulconazole will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • suvorexant

                midazolam intranasal, suvorexant. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • tacrolimus ointment

                tacrolimus ointment will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • tamoxifen

                tamoxifen will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • tapentadol

                midazolam intranasal, tapentadol. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • tasimelteon

                midazolam intranasal, tasimelteon. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • temazepam

                midazolam intranasal, temazepam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • temsirolimus

                temsirolimus will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • teniposide

                teniposide will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • testosterone

                testosterone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • testosterone buccal system

                testosterone buccal system will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • tetrabenazine

                midazolam intranasal, tetrabenazine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • thalidomide

                midazolam intranasal, thalidomide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • theophylline

                midazolam intranasal, theophylline. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • thioridazine

                midazolam intranasal, thioridazine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • thiothixene

                midazolam intranasal, thiothixene. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • tiagabine

                midazolam intranasal, tiagabine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ticagrelor

                ticagrelor will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • ticlopidine

                ticlopidine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • tizanidine

                midazolam intranasal, tizanidine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • topiramate

                midazolam intranasal, topiramate. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • tramadol

                midazolam intranasal, tramadol. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • tranylcypromine

                tranylcypromine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • trazodone

                trazodone will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • triazolam

                midazolam intranasal, triazolam. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • trifluoperazine

                midazolam intranasal, trifluoperazine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • trimethobenzamide

                midazolam intranasal, trimethobenzamide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • trimipramine

                midazolam intranasal, trimipramine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • triprolidine

                midazolam intranasal, triprolidine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • valerian

                midazolam intranasal, valerian. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • valproic acid

                valproic acid will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

                midazolam intranasal, valproic acid. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • vigabatrin

                midazolam intranasal, vigabatrin. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • vilazodone

                midazolam intranasal, vilazodone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • vinblastine

                vinblastine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • vincristine

                vincristine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • vinorelbine

                vinorelbine will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • zafirlukast

                zafirlukast will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

              • zaleplon

                midazolam intranasal, zaleplon. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ziconotide

                midazolam intranasal, ziconotide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • ziprasidone

                midazolam intranasal, ziprasidone. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • zolpidem

                midazolam intranasal, zolpidem. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              • zonisamide

                midazolam intranasal, zonisamide. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

              Minor (0)

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                Adverse Effects

                1-10% (Single 5-mg Dose)

                Somnolence (10%)

                Headache (7%)

                Nasal discomfort (5%)

                Abnormal taste (4%)

                Rhinorrhea (3%)

                Throat irritation (2%)

                Dysarthria (2%)

                Lacrimation increased (1%)

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                Warnings

                Black Box Warnings

                Risks from concomitant use with opioids

                Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death

                Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate

                Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required

                Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation

                Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if drug is used with opioids and that such drugs should not be used concomitantly unless supervised by a health care provider

                Prescribers should advise caregivers that they expect to be informed immediately if a patient develops any new findings which are not typical of the patient’s characteristic seizure episode

                Addiction, abuse, and misuse

                On September 2020, FDA addressed serious risks of benzodiazepine addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death

                Physical dependence can occur when taken steadily for several days to weeks, even as prescribed

                Stopping abruptly or reducing dosage too quickly can result in withdrawal reactions, including seizures, which can be life-threatening

                Abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines commonly involve concomitant use of other medications, alcohol, and/or illicit substances, which is associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse outcomes; before prescribing and throughout treatment, assess each patient’s risk for abuse, misuse, and addiction

                Assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing and monitor regularly for the development of these conditions

                Risks of dependence and withdrawal increase with longer treatment duration and higher daily dose; although injection is indicated only for intermittent use, if used more frequently than recommended, abrupt discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction may precipitate acute withdrawal reactions, including seizures, which can be life-threatening; use gradual taper when discontinuing therapy to reduce withdrawal reactions risk

                Contraindications

                Known hypersensitivity

                Acute narrow-angle glaucoma

                Cautions

                Serious cardiorespiratory adverse reactions reported, including respiratory depression, airway obstruction, oxygen desaturation, apnea, respiratory arrest, and/or cardiac arrest, sometimes resulting in death or permanent neurologic injury; danger of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, or apnea is greater in elderly patients and those with chronic disease states or decreased pulmonary reserve

                Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication; pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials of 11 different AEDs showed ~2 x risk of suicidal thinking or behavior in patients taking AEDs; should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms may be related to illness being treated

                May impair cognitive function; use associated with high incidence of partial or complete impairment of recall for several hours following dose

                Benzodiazepines can increase intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma; may use in patients with open-angle glaucoma who are controlled with medication; contraindicated with narrow-angle glaucoma

                When midazolam was used for sedation, reactions such as agitation, involuntary movements (including tonic/clonic movements and muscle tremor), hyperactivity, and combativeness reported

                Slower elimination and prolonged drug exposure of midazolam and its metabolites observed in patients with renal or hepatic impairment or congestive heart failure

                Use of drug, particularly in patients at elevated risk of abuse, necessitates counseling about risks and proper use of drug along with monitoring for signs and symptoms of abuse, misuse, and addiction; do not exceed recommended dosing frequency

                Avoid or minimize concomitant use of CNS depressants and other substances associated with abuse, misuse, and addiction (eg, opioid analgesics, stimulants); advise patients on proper disposal of unused drug; if a substance use disorder is suspected, evaluate patient and institute (or refer them for) early treatment, as appropriate

                For patients using treated more frequently than recommended, to reduce risk of withdrawal reactions, use a gradual taper to discontinue therapy (a patient-specific plan should be used to taper the dose)

                Patients at an increased risk of withdrawal adverse reactions after benzodiazepine discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction include those who take higher dosages, and those who have had longer durations of use

                In some cases, benzodiazepine users have developed a protracted withdrawal syndrome with withdrawal symptoms lasting weeks to more than 12 months

                Drug interaction overview

                • Opioids and benzodiazepines: Concomitant use of benzodiazepines (including midazolam intranasal) and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death; only use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; hypotension more likely if patient premedicated with a narcotic
                • CNS depressants: CNS depression reported with coadministration with other CNS depressants (eg, barbiturates, alcohol)
                • CYP3A4 inhibitors: Risk of prolonged sedation if coadministered with moderate or strong CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitors, owing to much higher midazolam exposures
                • CYP3A4 inducers: Midazolam exposure decreased 16-26% if coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inducers and by 8-15% by weak-to-moderate inducers
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                Pregnancy

                Pregnancy

                There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of midazolam intranasal in pregnant women

                Available data suggest benzodiazepines are not associated with marked increases in risk for congenital anomalies

                Clinical considerations

                • Exposure to benzodiazepines during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy or immediately prior to or during childbirth may increase risk for decreased fetal movement and/or fetal heart rate variability, floppy infant syndrome, dependence, and withdrawal
                • Clinical manifestations of withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome may include hypertonia, hyperreflexia, hypoventilation, irritability, tremors, diarrhea, and vomiting

                Pregnancy registry

                • Encourage women prescribed midazolam intranasal during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry by calling 1-888-233-2334 or register at http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/

                Animal studies

                • Administration of midazolam to rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis or to rats during late pregnancy and throughout lactation at doses greater than those used clinically did not result in any apparent adverse effects on development
                • However, published data for benzodiazepines suggest potential of neuronal cell death and long-term effects on neurobehavioral and immunological function in animals following prenatal or early postnatal exposure at clinically relevant doses

                Lactation

                Midazolam is excreted in human milk

                Studies assessing effects in the breastfed infant or on milk production/excretion have not been performed

                Postmarketing experience suggests that breastfed infants of mothers taking benzodiazepines may experience lethargy, somnolence, and poor sucking

                Pregnancy Categories

                A: Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.

                B: May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.

                C: Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.

                D: Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.

                X: Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.

                NA: Information not available.

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                Pharmacology

                Mechanism of Action

                Binds receptors at several sites within the CNS, including the limbic system and reticular formation; effects may be mediated through GABA receptor system; increase in neuronal membrane permeability to chloride ions enhances the inhibitory effects of GABA; the shift in chloride ions causes hyperpolarization (less excitability) and stabilization of the neuronal membrane

                Absorption

                Absolute bioavailability: 44%

                Peak plasma time: 17.3 minutes

                Peak plasma concentration: 54.7 ng/mL

                AUC: 126.2 ng·hr/mL

                Distribution

                Vd: 226.5 L

                Protein bound: ~97%; 89% (1-hydroxy midazolam)

                Metabolism

                Primarily metabolized by liver and intestinal CYP3A4 to its pharmacologic active metabolite, 1-hydroxy midazolam (also termed alpha-hydroxymidazolam), which is at least as potent as the parent compound

                Also metabolized to 2 other minor metabolites: 4-hydroxy metabolite and 1,4-dihydroxy metabolite

                Elimination

                Half-life: 2.1-6.2 hr; 2.7-7.2 hr (major metabolite)

                Excretion: Primarily in urine as glucuronide conjugates of hydroxylated derivatives

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                Administration

                Intranasal Administration

                For nasal administration only as single-episode acute treatment of intermittent seizures

                Not for long-term, daily use as an anticonvulsant owing to potential for development of tolerance to midazolam’s therapeutic effects

                Do not open blister packaging until ready to use

                Do not test or prime before use

                Do not use if the nasal spray unit appears damaged

                Storage

                Store at controlled room temperature 20-25°C (68-77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F)

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                Images

                No images available for this drug.
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                Patient Handout

                A Patient Handout is not currently available for this monograph.
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                Formulary

                FormularyPatient Discounts

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                • View the formulary and any restrictions for each plan.
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                • Compare formulary status to other drugs in the same class.
                • Access your plan list on any device – mobile or desktop.

                The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information.

                Tier Description
                1 This drug is available at the lowest co-pay. Most commonly, these are generic drugs.
                2 This drug is available at a middle level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "preferred" (on formulary) brand drugs.
                3 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs.
                4 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
                5 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
                6 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
                NC NOT COVERED – Drugs that are not covered by the plan.
                Code Definition
                PA Prior Authorization
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                Medscape prescription drug monographs are based on FDA-approved labeling information, unless otherwise noted, combined with additional data derived from primary medical literature.