etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol (Rx)

Brand and Other Names:NuvaRing, EluRyng
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Dosing & Uses

AdultPediatric

Dosage Forms & Strengths

etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol

vaginal ring

  • 0.12mg/0.015mg released per day

Contraception

Indicated for use by females of reproductive age

One NuvaRing is inserted in the vagina to remain in place for 3 weeks

Remove for a one-week break; withdrawal bleed usually occurs, THEN

Insert a new ring 1 week after last ring removed

See Adminstration for details regarding when to insert ring

Dosage Forms & Strengths

etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol

vaginal ring

  • 0.12mg/0.015mg released per day

Contraception

Indicated for use by females of reproductive age

One NuvaRing is inserted in the vagina to remain in place for 3 weeks

Remove for a one-week break; withdrawal bleed usually occurs, THEN

Insert a new ring 1 week after last ring removed

See Adminstration for details regarding when to insert ring

Next:

Interactions

Interaction Checker

and etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol

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      Serious - Use Alternative

        Significant - Monitor Closely

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            Contraindicated (2)

            • ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir & dasabuvir

              ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir & dasabuvir, ethinylestradiol. unspecified interaction mechanism. Contraindicated. Potential for increased ALT; contraceptive failure may occur when coadministered with protease inhibitors (ritonavir).

              ethinylestradiol, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir & dasabuvir. Either increases toxicity of the other by unspecified interaction mechanism. Contraindicated. ALT elevations >5 x ULN (including some >20 x ULN) observed in clinical trials when ethinyl estradiol was coadministered with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir. Discontinue ethinyl estradiol-containing medications before initiating ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, and/or dasabuvir. Restart ethinyl estradiol containing medication ~2 weeks after hepatitis C combination drug regimen completed.

            • tranexamic acid oral

              tranexamic acid oral, ethinylestradiol. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Contraindicated. Coadministration of tranexamic acid oral and combination hormonal contraceptives increases thrombotic risk.

            Serious - Use Alternative (71)

            • abametapir

              abametapir will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. For 2 weeks after abametapir application, avoid taking drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates. If not feasible, avoid use of abametapir.

            • amobarbital

              amobarbital will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • anastrozole

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of anastrozole by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Anastrozole should not be given concurrently with any estrogens or estrogen-containing products.

            • apalutamide

              apalutamide will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of apalutamide, a strong CYP3A4 inducer, with drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates can result in lower exposure to these medications. Avoid or substitute another drug for these medications when possible. Evaluate for loss of therapeutic effect if medication must be coadministered. Adjust dose according to prescribing information if needed.

            • armodafinil

              armodafinil will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • atazanavir

              atazanavir, ethinylestradiol. Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Comment: Significant changes (increase or decrease) can occur in estrogen plasma levels. Efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. .

            • belzutifan

              belzutifan will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of belzutifan with hormonal contraceptives may lead to contraceptive failure or increased breakthrough bleeding. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective nonhormonal contraception. Based on animal studies, belzutifan can cause fetal harm.

            • bosentan

              bosentan will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • brigatinib

              brigatinib will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Brigatinib induces CYP3A4 in vitro. Coadministration of hormonal contraceptives with brigatinib can result in decreased concentrations and loss of efficacy. Brigatinib can cause fetal harm. Women should use an effective nonhormonal method of contraception during treatment and for at least 4 months after the last brigatinib dose.

              brigatinib will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Brigatinib induces CYP3A4 in vitro. Coadministration of hormonal contraceptives with brigatinib can result in decreased concentrations and loss of efficacy. Brigatinib can cause fetal harm. Women should use an effective nonhormonal method of contraception during treatment and for at least 4 months after the last brigatinib dose.

            • butabarbital

              butabarbital will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • carbamazepine

              carbamazepine will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • calaspargase pegol

              calaspargase pegol, ethinylestradiol. unknown mechanism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Due to the potential for an indirect interaction between calaspargase pegol and oral contraceptives, concomitant use of these drugs is not recommended. Use another non-oral contraceptive method for females of childbearing potential.

            • carbamazepine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of carbamazepine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

              carbamazepine will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • clarithromycin

              clarithromycin will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • conivaptan

              conivaptan will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • dexamethasone

              dexamethasone will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • efavirenz

              efavirenz will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • elagolix

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of elagolix by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Based on the mechanism of action of elagolix, estrogen-containing contraceptives are expected to reduce elagolix efficacy. Effects of progestin-only contraceptives on the efficacy of elagolix is unknown. Advise women to use nonhormonal contraceptives during treatment with elagolix and for 1 week after discontinuing elagolix.

            • elvitegravir

              elvitegravir will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by unknown mechanism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Consider alternative nonhormonal methods of contraception to add or replace combination oral contraceptive

            • encorafenib

              encorafenib will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of encorafenib with hormonal contraceptives (CYP3A4 substrates) can result in decreased concentrations and loss of hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Since encorafenib can cause fetal harm, advise women of childbearing potential to use a highly effective nonhormonal contraceptive during treatment and for 2 weeks after final encorafenib dose.

            • enoxaparin

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of enoxaparin by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Contraindicated. Risk of thromboembolic disorders.

            • enzalutamide

              enzalutamide will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin base

              erythromycin base will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin ethylsuccinate

              erythromycin ethylsuccinate will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin lactobionate

              erythromycin lactobionate will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin stearate

              erythromycin stearate will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • eslicarbazepine acetate

              eslicarbazepine acetate will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Use additional or alternative nonhormonal birth control.

            • exemestane

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of exemestane by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Exemestane should not be given concurrently with any estrogens or estrogen-containing products.

            • fedratinib

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of fedratinib by Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of fedratinib (a CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 substrate) with dual CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 inhibitor. Effect of coadministration of a dual CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 inhibitor with fedratinib has not been studied.

            • fexinidazole

              fexinidazole will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP2E1 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Fexinidazole inhibits CYP3A4. Coadministration may increase risk for adverse effects of CYP3A4 substrates.

            • fosamprenavir

              fosamprenavir, ethinylestradiol. unspecified interaction mechanism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration may decrease amprenavir AUC, and may lead to loss of virologic response. Coadministration of fosamprenavir with ethinyl estradiol may alter hormone levels. Alternative methods of nonhormonal contraception are recommended.

            • griseofulvin

              griseofulvin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • heparin

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of heparin by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Contraindicated. Risk of thromboembolic disorders.

            • idelalisib

              idelalisib will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Idelalisib is a strong CYP3A inhibitor; avoid coadministration with sensitive CYP3A substrates

            • indinavir

              indinavir, ethinylestradiol. Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Comment: Significant changes (increase or decrease) can occur in estrogen plasma levels. Efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. .

            • ivosidenib

              ivosidenib will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of sensitive CYP3A4 substrates with ivosidenib or replace with alternate therapies. If coadministration is unavoidable, monitor patients for loss of therapeutic effect of these drugs.

            • ketoconazole

              ketoconazole will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • lesinurad

              lesinurad decreases effects of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Use additional methods of nonhormonal contraception. Do not rely on hormonal contraception alone when taking lesinurad.

              lesinurad decreases effects of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Use additional methods of nonhormonal contraception. Do not rely on hormonal contraception alone when taking lesinurad.

            • letrozole

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of letrozole by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Letrozole should not be given concurrently with any estrogens or estrogen-containing products.

            • lumacaftor/ivacaftor

              lumacaftor/ivacaftor will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by unspecified interaction mechanism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration unless benefit outweighs risk. When coadministered, hormonal contraceptives are not a reliable method of effective birth control. Concomitant use may increase incidence of menstruation associated adverse effects (amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia).

            • lonafarnib

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of lonafarnib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If coadministration of lonafarnib (a sensitive CYP3A substrate) with weak CYP3A inhibitors is unavoidable, reduce to, or continue lonafarnib at starting dose. Closely monitor for arrhythmias and events (eg, syncope, heart palpitations) since lonafarnib effect on QT interval is unknown.

            • lopinavir

              lopinavir, ethinylestradiol. Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Comment: Significant changes (increase or decrease) can occur in estrogen plasma levels. Efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. .

              lopinavir will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • lumacaftor/ivacaftor

              lumacaftor/ivacaftor will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by unspecified interaction mechanism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration unless benefit outweighs risk. When coadministered, hormonal contraceptives are not a reliable method of effective birth control. Concomitant use may increase incidence of menstruation associated adverse effects (amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia).

            • metyrapone

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of metyrapone by unspecified interaction mechanism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. A subtherapeutic response to metyrapone can be seen in patients on estrogens, including oral contraceptives, that contain estrogen therapy. It may be advisable to discontinue estrogens prior to and during metyrapone administration.

            • mifepristone

              mifepristone will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • mobocertinib

              mobocertinib will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration of mobocertinib with hormonal contraceptives may lead to contraceptive failure or increased breakthrough bleeding. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective non-hormonal contraception.

            • modafinil

              modafinil will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • mycophenolate

              mycophenolate decreases effects of ethinylestradiol by unknown mechanism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Patients should consider using an alternative or additional form of contraception.

            • nelfinavir

              nelfinavir, ethinylestradiol. Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Comment: Significant changes (increase or decrease) can occur in estrogen plasma levels. Efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. .

              nelfinavir will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • nevirapine

              nevirapine will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • oxcarbazepine

              oxcarbazepine will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • pentobarbital

              pentobarbital will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • phenobarbital

              phenobarbital will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • phenytoin

              phenytoin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • primidone

              primidone will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • quinidine

              quinidine will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ranolazine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of ranolazine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • rifabutin

              rifabutin will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

              rifabutin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • rifampin

              rifampin will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

              rifampin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • St John's Wort

              St John's Wort will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • rifapentine

              rifapentine will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • ritonavir

              ritonavir, ethinylestradiol. Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Comment: Significant changes (increase or decrease) can occur in estrogen plasma levels. Efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. .

              ritonavir will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • saquinavir

              saquinavir, ethinylestradiol. Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Comment: Significant changes (increase or decrease) can occur in estrogen plasma levels. Efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. .

              saquinavir will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • secobarbital

              secobarbital will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • St John's Wort

              St John's Wort will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • sugammadex sodium

              sugammadex sodium decreases effects of ethinylestradiol by receptor binding competition. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. In vitro binding studies showed that sugammadex may bind to progestogen, thereby decreasing progestogen exposure. Therefore, a sugammadex bolus dose is considered to be equivalent to missing dose(s) of hormonal contraceptives containing an estrogen or progestogen. If an oral contraceptive is taken on the same day of sugammadex, or the patient has a transdermal or implant hormonal contraceptive, the patient must use an additional, nonhormonal contraceptive method or back-up method of contraception (eg, condoms and spermicides) for the next 7 days.

              sugammadex sodium decreases effects of etonogestrel by receptor binding competition. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. In vitro binding studies showed that sugammadex may bind to progestogen, thereby decreasing progestogen exposure. Therefore, a sugammadex bolus dose is considered to be equivalent to missing dose(s) of hormonal contraceptives containing an estrogen or progestogen. If an oral contraceptive is taken on the same day of sugammadex, or the patient has a transdermal or implant hormonal contraceptive, the patient must use an additional, nonhormonal contraceptive method or back-up method of contraception (eg, condoms and spermicides) for the next 7 days.

            • tipranavir

              tipranavir, ethinylestradiol. Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Comment: Significant changes (increase or decrease) can occur in estrogen plasma levels. Efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended. .

            • topiramate

              topiramate will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • tucatinib

              tucatinib will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid concomitant use of tucatinib with CYP3A substrates, where minimal concentration changes may lead to serious or life-threatening toxicities. If unavoidable, reduce CYP3A substrate dose according to product labeling.

            • voxelotor

              voxelotor will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Voxelotor increases systemic exposure of sensitive CYP3A4 substrates. Avoid coadministration with sensitive CYP3A4 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index. Consider dose reduction of the sensitive CYP3A4 substrate(s) if unable to avoid.

            • warfarin

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of warfarin by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. The use of estrogen-containing contraceptives and coumarin derivatives should be avoided to avoid risk of thromboembolic disorders.

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of warfarin by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Contraindicated. Risk of thromboembolic disorders.

            Monitor Closely (180)

            • albiglutide

              etonogestrel decreases effects of albiglutide by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Etonogestrel may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of albiglutide by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • alosetron

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of alosetron by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ambrisentan

              ambrisentan will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • alprazolam

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of alprazolam by Mechanism: decreasing metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines.

            • aminocaproic acid

              ethinylestradiol, aminocaproic acid. Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Concomitant use may lead to additive hypercoagulability. Estrogens increase clotting factor production and platelet aggregation; aminocaproic acid inhibits fibrinolysis and activity of plasminogen.

            • amobarbital

              amobarbital will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • amoxicillin

              amoxicillin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. Antibiotics may decrease hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

            • ampicillin

              ampicillin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • aprepitant

              aprepitant will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • armodafinil

              armodafinil will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • artemether/lumefantrine

              artemether/lumefantrine will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              artemether/lumefantrine will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • atazanavir

              atazanavir will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • atorvastatin

              atorvastatin will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • axitinib

              ethinylestradiol increases levels of axitinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • bendamustine

              ethinylestradiol increases levels of bendamustine by decreasing metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Bendamustine is metabolized to minimally active metabolites by CYP1A2. Ethinyl estradiol is a weak CYP1A2 inhibitor and concurrent administration may increase bendamustine concentrations in plasma. .

            • bosentan

              bosentan will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • butabarbital

              butabarbital will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • butalbital

              butalbital will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • caffeine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of caffeine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cefaclor

              cefaclor will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cefadroxil

              cefadroxil will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cefazolin

              cefazolin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cefdinir

              cefdinir will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cefepime

              cefepime will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cefixime

              cefixime will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cefotaxime

              cefotaxime will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cefprozil

              cefprozil will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ceftazidime

              ceftazidime will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ceftibuten

              ceftibuten will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cefuroxime

              cefuroxime will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cenobamate

              cenobamate will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Increase dose of CYP3A4 substrate, as needed, when coadministered with cenobamate.

              cenobamate will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by unspecified interaction mechanism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Advise women to use additional or alternative non-hormonal birth control when concomitantly using cenobamate with oral contraceptives.

            • cephalexin

              cephalexin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • chloramphenicol

              chloramphenicol will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cimetidine

              cimetidine will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ciprofloxacin

              ciprofloxacin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • clarithromycin

              clarithromycin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely.

            • clindamycin

              clindamycin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • clobazam

              clobazam will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Clobazam is a weak CYP3A4 inducer; effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives may be diminished when given concurrently with clobazam. Additional non-hormonal forms of contraception are recommended.

              clobazam will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Clobazam is a weak CYP3A4 inducer; effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives may be diminished when given concurrently with clobazam. Additional non-hormonal forms of contraception are recommended.

            • clonazepam

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of clonazepam by Mechanism: decreasing metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines.

            • conivaptan

              conivaptan will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cyclosporine

              cyclosporine will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              ethinylestradiol increases levels of cyclosporine by unknown mechanism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dabrafenib

              dabrafenib will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely.

            • darifenacin

              darifenacin will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • darunavir

              darunavir will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              darunavir will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Significant changes (increase or decrease) can occur in estrogen plasma levels. Efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

            • dasatinib

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of dasatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              dasatinib will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • deferasirox

              deferasirox will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              deferasirox will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • DHEA, herbal

              DHEA, herbal will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • demeclocycline

              demeclocycline will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • diazepam

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of diazepam by Mechanism: decreasing metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines.

            • dicloxacillin

              dicloxacillin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • doxycycline

              doxycycline will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dronedarone

              dronedarone will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • efavirenz

              efavirenz will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • elagolix

              elagolix will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Elagolix is a weak-to-moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Monitor CYP3A substrates if coadministered. Consider increasing CYP3A substrate dose if needed.

            • eltrombopag

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of eltrombopag by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF

              elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF increases levels of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4 inhibitor; contraindicated with CYP3A4 substrates for which elevated plasma concentrations are associated with serious and/or life-threatening events.

            • erythromycin base

              erythromycin base will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. Antibiotics may decrease hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

            • erythromycin ethylsuccinate

              erythromycin ethylsuccinate will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. Antibiotics may decrease hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

            • erythromycin lactobionate

              erythromycin lactobionate will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. Antibiotics may decrease hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

            • erythromycin stearate

              erythromycin stearate will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor. Antibiotics may decrease hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

            • etravirine

              etravirine will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. The efficacy of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced. Use of a nonhormonal contraceptive is recommended.

              etravirine will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • exenatide injectable solution

              etonogestrel decreases effects of exenatide injectable solution by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Estrogens may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

              ethinylestradiol, exenatide injectable solution. Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. The effect of exenatide to slow gastric emptying may reduce the extent and rate of oral medications that require rapid GI absorption. Advise patients to take oral contraceptives at least 1 hr before exenatide. .

            • exenatide injectable suspension

              ethinylestradiol, exenatide injectable suspension. Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. The effect of exenatide to slow gastric emptying may reduce the extent and rate of oral medications that require rapid GI absorption. Advise patients to take oral contraceptives at least 1 hr before exenatide.

              etonogestrel decreases effects of exenatide injectable suspension by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Estrogens may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • fedratinib

              fedratinib will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Adjust dose of drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates as necessary.

            • fluconazole

              fluconazole will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • finerenone

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of finerenone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Monitor serum potassium during initiation and dosage adjustment of either finererone or weak CYP3A4 inhibitors. Adjust finererone dosage as needed.

            • flibanserin

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of flibanserin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Increased flibanserin adverse effects may occur if coadministered with multiple weak CYP3A4 inhibitors.

            • fluconazole

              fluconazole will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fluvoxamine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of fluvoxamine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fosamprenavir

              fosamprenavir will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fosphenytoin

              fosphenytoin will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fostemsavir

              fostemsavir will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by Other (see comment). Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Fostemsavir inhibits BCRP transporters. If possible, avoid coadministration or modify dose of BCRP substrate coadministered with fostemsavir. Do not ethinyl estradiol dose of exceed 30 mcg/day.

            • gemifloxacin

              gemifloxacin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • grapefruit

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              grapefruit will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • green tea

              ethinylestradiol increases levels of green tea by decreasing elimination. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • griseofulvin

              griseofulvin will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • hemin

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of hemin by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Drugs that increase delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase may decrease hemin effect.

            • hyaluronidase

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of hyaluronidase by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Estrogens, when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect.

            • iloperidone

              iloperidone increases levels of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Iloperidone is a time-dependent CYP3A inhibitor and may lead to increased plasma levels of drugs predominantly eliminated by CYP3A4.

            • indinavir

              indinavir will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • insulin aspart

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin aspart by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • insulin degludec

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin degludec by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Estrogens may impair glucose tolerance.

              etonogestrel decreases effects of insulin degludec by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Progestins may impair glucose tolerance.

            • insulin degludec/insulin aspart

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin degludec/insulin aspart by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Estrogens may impair glucose tolerance.

              etonogestrel decreases effects of insulin degludec/insulin aspart by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Progestins may impair glucose tolerance.

            • insulin detemir

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin detemir by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • insulin inhaled

              etonogestrel decreases effects of insulin inhaled by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Progestins may impair glucose tolerance.

            • insulin glargine

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin glargine by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • insulin glulisine

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin glulisine by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • insulin inhaled

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin inhaled by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Estrogens may impair glucose tolerance.

            • insulin lispro

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin lispro by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • insulin NPH

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin NPH by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • insulin regular human

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of insulin regular human by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • isoniazid

              isoniazid will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • istradefylline

              istradefylline will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Istradefylline 40 mg/day increased peak levels and AUC of CYP3A4 substrates in clinical trials. This effect was not observed with istradefylline 20 mg/day. Consider dose reduction of sensitive CYP3A4 substrates.

            • itraconazole

              itraconazole will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              itraconazole will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. CYP3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole may increase plasma hormone levels.

            • ketoconazole

              ketoconazole will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ketoconazole may increase plasma hormone levels.

            • lamotrigine

              etonogestrel will decrease the level or effect of lamotrigine by increasing hepatic clearance. Use Caution/Monitor. Combination oral contraceptives have been shown to significantly decrease plasma concentrations of lamotrigine, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation.

            • lamotrigine

              ethinylestradiol decreases levels of lamotrigine by increasing hepatic clearance. Use Caution/Monitor. Combination oral contraceptives have been shown to significantly decrease plasma concentrations of lamotrigine, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation.

            • lapatinib

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of lapatinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              lapatinib will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • lemborexant

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of lemborexant by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Lower nightly dose of lemborexant recommended if coadministered with weak CYP3A4 inhibitors. See drug monograph for specific dosage modification.

            • letermovir

              letermovir increases levels of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • levofloxacin

              levofloxacin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • liraglutide

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of liraglutide by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Oral contraceptives may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

              etonogestrel decreases effects of liraglutide by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Etonogestrel may decrease hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics by impairing glucose tolerance. Monitor for glycemic control in diabetic patients.

            • lixisenatide

              lixisenatide will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. GLP1 agonists delay gastric emptying, which may affect absorption of concomitantly administered oral medications. Oral contraceptives should be taken at least 1 hr before lixisenatide administration or 11 hr after lixisenatide.

            • lumefantrine

              lumefantrine will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • lomitapide

              ethinylestradiol increases levels of lomitapide by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Lomitapide dose should not exceed 30 mg/day.

            • lorlatinib

              lorlatinib will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • lumefantrine

              lumefantrine will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • maraviroc

              etonogestrel increases levels of maraviroc by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Potential for increased toxicity. .

            • marijuana

              marijuana will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • metformin

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of metformin by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              etonogestrel decreases effects of metformin by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • metronidazole

              metronidazole will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

              metronidazole will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • mexiletine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of mexiletine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • miconazole vaginal

              miconazole vaginal will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • midazolam

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of midazolam by Mechanism: decreasing metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines.

            • midazolam intranasal

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of midazolam intranasal by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of mild CYP3A4 inhibitors with midazolam intranasal may cause higher midazolam systemic exposure, which may prolong sedation.

            • mifepristone

              mifepristone decreases effects of ethinylestradiol by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor. Backup contraceptive method recommended.

            • minocycline

              minocycline will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • mitotane

              mitotane decreases levels of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Mitotane is a strong inducer of cytochrome P-4503A4; monitor when coadministered with CYP3A4 substrates for possible dosage adjustments.

            • modafinil

              modafinil will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • moxifloxacin

              moxifloxacin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nafcillin

              nafcillin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nelfinavir

              nelfinavir will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • neomycin PO

              neomycin PO will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nevirapine

              nevirapine will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nicardipine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of nicardipine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nifedipine

              nifedipine will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nilotinib

              nilotinib will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of nilotinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nitrofurantoin

              nitrofurantoin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • oxcarbazepine

              oxcarbazepine will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ofloxacin

              ofloxacin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • olanzapine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of olanzapine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • paromomycin

              paromomycin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • penicillin G aqueous

              penicillin G aqueous decreases levels of ethinylestradiol by increasing metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of oral contraceptive failure.

            • penicillin VK

              penicillin VK will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • pentobarbital

              pentobarbital will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • phenobarbital

              phenobarbital will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • phenytoin

              phenytoin will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • pioglitazone

              pioglitazone decreases levels of ethinylestradiol by unknown mechanism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • posaconazole

              posaconazole will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              posaconazole will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • primidone

              primidone will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • quinupristin/dalfopristin

              quinupristin/dalfopristin will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • quinupristin/dalfopristin

              quinupristin/dalfopristin will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ramelteon

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of ramelteon by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • rasagiline

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of rasagiline by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Recommended dose of rasagiline is 0.5mg daily in combination with CYP1A2 inhibitors.

            • ribociclib

              ribociclib will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              ribociclib will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • rifapentine

              rifapentine will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • romidepsin

              romidepsin decreases effects of ethinylestradiol by receptor binding competition. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ritonavir

              ritonavir will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ropinirole

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of ropinirole by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              ethinylestradiol increases levels of ropinirole by unspecified interaction mechanism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • rucaparib

              rucaparib will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Adjust dosage of CYP3A4 substrates, if clinically indicated.

            • rufinamide

              rufinamide will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              rufinamide decreases effects of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Rufinamide is a weak inducer of the CYP 3A4 enzyme and can decrease exposure of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4. .

            • secobarbital

              secobarbital will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • selegiline

              ethinylestradiol increases levels of selegiline by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Oral contraceptives inhibit the N demethylatin of selegiline.

            • selegiline transdermal

              ethinylestradiol increases levels of selegiline transdermal by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Oral contraceptives inhibit the N demethylatin of selegiline.

            • siltuximab

              siltuximab, ethinylestradiol. Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: CYP450 activity in the liver is down regulated by infection and inflammation stimuli including cytokines (eg, IL-6); inhibition of IL-6 by siltuximab may restore CYP450 enzymatic activity; caution if coadministered with CYP substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index.

            • stiripentol

              stiripentol, ethinylestradiol. affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Stiripentol is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer. Monitor CYP3A4 substrates coadministered with stiripentol for increased or decreased effects. CYP3A4 substrates may require dosage adjustment.

            • sulfadiazine

              sulfadiazine will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • sulfamethoxazole

              sulfamethoxazole will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • sulfisoxazole

              sulfisoxazole will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tacrolimus

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of tacrolimus by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tazemetostat

              tazemetostat will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of tazemetostat by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tecovirimat

              tecovirimat will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Tecovirimat is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Monitor sensitive CYP3A4 substrates for effectiveness if coadministered.

            • teriflunomide

              teriflunomide increases levels of ethinylestradiol by unknown mechanism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tetracycline

              tetracycline will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • theophylline

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of theophylline by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ticarcillin

              ticarcillin will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tigecycline

              tigecycline will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tinidazole

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of tinidazole by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tizanidine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of tizanidine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Monitor for tizanidine adverse effects (eg, hypotension or bradycardia)

            • tolterodine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of tolterodine by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • topiramate

              topiramate will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • triazolam

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of triazolam by Mechanism: decreasing metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor. Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines.

            • trimethoprim

              trimethoprim will decrease the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by altering intestinal flora. Applies only to oral forms of hormone. Low risk of contraceptive failure. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ursodiol

              ethinylestradiol decreases effects of ursodiol by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • valproic acid

              ethinylestradiol will decrease the level or effect of valproic acid by increasing elimination. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. May lead to increased seizure frequency

            • vardenafil

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of vardenafil by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • verapamil

              verapamil will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • voriconazole

              voriconazole will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

              voriconazole will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • warfarin

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of warfarin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • zafirlukast

              zafirlukast will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            Minor (27)

            • amitriptyline

              ethinylestradiol, amitriptyline. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Estrogens and progestins may decr tricyclic antidepressant effects, while increasing TCA plasma concentration and adverse effects.

            • amoxapine

              ethinylestradiol, amoxapine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Estrogens and progestins may decr tricyclic antidepressant effects, while increasing TCA plasma concentration and adverse effects.

            • antipyrine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of antipyrine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • asenapine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of asenapine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • clarithromycin

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of clarithromycin by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • clomipramine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of clomipramine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • desipramine

              ethinylestradiol, desipramine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Oxidative metabolism of TCAs may be decreased by ethinyl estradiol. Increased antidepressant serum concentrations may occur. Potential for increased TCA adverse effects.

            • dosulepin

              ethinylestradiol, dosulepin. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Oxidative metabolism of TCAs may be decreased by ethinyl estradiol. Increased antidepressant serum concentrations may occur. Potential for increased TCA adverse effects.

            • doxepin

              ethinylestradiol, doxepin. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Oxidative metabolism of TCAs may be decreased by ethinyl estradiol. Increased antidepressant serum concentrations may occur. Potential for increased TCA adverse effects.

            • duloxetine

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of duloxetine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • enasidenib

              enasidenib, ethinylestradiol. unknown mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Coadministration of enasidenib may increase or decrease the concentrations of combined hormonal contraceptives. Clinical significance of this interaction is unknown.

            • eplerenone

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of eplerenone by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • eslicarbazepine acetate

              eslicarbazepine acetate will decrease the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • felbamate

              felbamate decreases levels of ethinylestradiol by unknown mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • frovatriptan

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of frovatriptan by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • imipramine

              ethinylestradiol, imipramine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Oxidative metabolism of TCAs may be decreased by ethinyl estradiol. Increased antidepressant serum concentrations may occur. Potential for increased TCA adverse effects.

            • mineral oil

              mineral oil decreases levels of ethinylestradiol by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • naratriptan

              ethinylestradiol increases effects of naratriptan by unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. The clinical implication of these interactions is unknown.

            • nefazodone

              nefazodone will increase the level or effect of etonogestrel by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

              nefazodone will increase the level or effect of ethinylestradiol by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • nortriptyline

              ethinylestradiol, nortriptyline. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Oxidative metabolism of TCAs may be decreased by ethinyl estradiol. Increased antidepressant serum concentrations may occur. Potential for increased TCA adverse effects.

            • protriptyline

              ethinylestradiol, protriptyline. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Oxidative metabolism of TCAs may be decreased by ethinyl estradiol. Increased antidepressant serum concentrations may occur. Potential for increased TCA adverse effects.

            • ramelteon

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of ramelteon by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • rosuvastatin

              rosuvastatin increases levels of ethinylestradiol by unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • ruxolitinib

              ethinylestradiol will increase the level or effect of ruxolitinib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • tizanidine

              ethinylestradiol increases levels of tizanidine by unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

            • trazodone

              ethinylestradiol, trazodone. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Oxidative metabolism of TCAs may be decreased by ethinyl estradiol. Increased antidepressant serum concentrations may occur. Potential for increased TCA adverse effects.

            • trimipramine

              ethinylestradiol, trimipramine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Oxidative metabolism of TCAs may be decreased by ethinyl estradiol. Increased antidepressant serum concentrations may occur. Potential for increased TCA adverse effects.

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            Adverse Effects

            >10%

            Vaginitis (13.8%)

            Headache (including migraine) (11.2%)

            1-10%

            Mood changes (6.4%)

            Device-related events (eg, expulsion/discomfort/foreign body sensation) (6.3%)

            Nausea/vomiting (5.9%)

            Vaginal discharge (5.7%)

            Increased weight (4.9%)

            Vaginal discomfort (4%)

            Breast pain/discomfort/tenderness (3.8%)

            Dysmenorrhea (3.5%)

            Abdominal pain (3.2%)

            Acne (2.4%)

            Decreased libido (2%)

            Postmarketing Reports

            Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis and angioedema)

            Nervous system disorders: Stroke/cerebrovascular accident

            Vascular disorders: Arterial events (including arterial thromboembolism and myocardial infarction), aggravation of varicose veins

            Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: urticaria, chloasma

            Reproductive system and breast disorders: penile disorders, including local reactions on penis (in male partners of women using NuvaRing), galactorrhea

            Injury, poisoning and procedural complications: Vaginal injury (including associated pain, discomfort, and bleeding) associated with ring breakage

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            Warnings

            Black Box Warnings

            Cigarette smoking & risk of cardiovascular disease

            • Cigarette smoking increases risk of serious cardiovascular adverse effects from combination hormonal contraceptive use
            • This risk increases with age (>35 yr) and with heavy smoking (ie, ≥15 cigarettes/day)
            • Advise women who use hormonal oral contraceptives not to smoke

            Contraindications

            Documented hypersensitivity

            Arterial thromboembolic disease (stroke, MI), thrombophlebitis, DVT/PE, thrombogenic valvular disease

            Estrogen-dependent neoplasia (current or history of)

            Cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease

            Headaches with focal neurological symptoms

            Liver disease, liver tumors

            Undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding

            Uncontrolled hypertension

            Women >35 years who smoke

            Major surgery with prolonged immobilization

            Diabetes mellitus with vascular involvement, jaundice with prior oral contraceptive use

            Breast cancer or other estrogen-or progestin-sensitive cancer,now or in the past

            Use of hepatitis C drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to potential for ALT elevations

            Cautions

            Avoid using diaphragm concomitantly; may interfere with ring placement

            Family history of breast cancer and or DVT/PE

            Use caution in current/history of depression, endometriosis, DM, HTN, bone mineral density changes, renal/hepatic impairment, bone metabolic disease, SLE; conditions exacerbated by fluid retention (eg, migraine, asthma, epilepsy)

            Known risk factors for VTE include smoking, obesity, and family history of VTE, in addition to other factors that contraindicate use of CHCs; stop use if arterial thrombotic or venous thromboembolic event (VTE) occurs or if there is unexplained loss of vision, proptosis, diplopia, papilledema, or retinal vascular lesions; evaluate for retinal vein thrombosis immediately

            The risk of VTE is highest during first year of CHC use and after restarting a CHC following a break of at least four weeks; risk of VTE due to CHCs gradually disappears after use is discontinued

            Discontinue if the following develop jaundice, visual problems (may cause contact lens intolerance), migraine with unusual severity, significant blood pressure increase, severe depression, increased risk of thromboembolic complications after surgery

            Discontinue 4 week before major surgery or prolonged immobilization

            Discontinue if an arterial thrombotic or venous thromboembolic event occurs

            Estrogens may cause retinal vascular thrombosis; discontinue therapy if visual disturbances occur including migraine, loss of vision, diplopia, or proptosis

            Patients on warfarin, oral anticoagulants (increase in anticoagulant dose may be warranted)

            Some studies link OCP use with increased risk of breast cancer, whereas other studies have not shown a change in risk; woman's risk depends on conditions where naturally high hormone levels persist for long periods of time including early onset menstruation before age 12, late onset menopause, after age 55, first child after age 30, nulliparity

            Increased risk of cervical cancer with OCP use, however HPV remains as main risk factor for this cancer, evidence suggests long-term use of OCPs, 5 or more years, may be associated with increased risk

            Increased risk of liver cancer with OCP use; risk increases with longer duration of OCP use

            Combination of hormonal contraceptives may affect lipoprotein levels and serum triglycerides

            Use of CHCs may worsen existing gallbladder disease; past history of CHC-related cholestasis predicts an increased risk with subsequent CHC use; women with a history of pregnancy-related cholestasis may be at increased risk for CHC-related cholestasis

            Use caution in patients with diseases that may be exacerbated by fluid retention including migraine, diabetes, renal dysfunction, and epilepsy

            CDC guidelines recommend waiting at least 4 weeks following vaginal birth, in women who are not breastfeeding, or 6 weeks after cesarean section to decrease risk for venous thromboembolism before initiating combined hormonal contraceptives; women with additional risk factors for VTE (besides postpartum) should not use combined hormonal contraceptives (MMWR July 7, 2011)

            The risk of postpartum thromboembolism decreases after third postpartum week, whereas risk of ovulation increases after third postpartum week

            Ring may not be suitable for women with conditions that make vagina more susceptible to vaginal irritation or ulceration; vaginal/cervical erosion or ulceration in women reported; in some cases, the ring adhered to vaginal tissue, necessitating removal by a healthcare provider and in some instances (ie, when tissue had grown over ring), removal was achieved by cutting the ring without incising the overlying vaginal tissue

            Cases of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) have been reported by NuvaRing users; TSS has been associated with tampons and certain barrier contraceptives, and, in some cases the patients were also using tampons; a causal relationship between use of product and TSS has not been established; if a patient exhibits signs or symptoms of TSS, consider possibility of this diagnosis and initiate appropriate medical evaluation and treatment

            Do not use product in women with liver disease such as acute viral hepatitis or severe (decompensated) cirrhosis of the liver; acute or chronic disturbances of liver function may necessitate the discontinuation of CHC use until markers of liver function return to normal and CHC causation has been excluded; discontinue use if jaundice develops

            Risk of liver enzyme elevations with concomitant hepatitis C treatment reported; discontinue use prior to starting therapy with combination drug regimen ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir; drug can be restarted approximately 2 weeks following completion of treatment with the Hepatitis C combination drug regimen

            Increase in blood pressure reported in women using CHCs; this increase is more likely in older women and with extended duration of use; incidence of hypertension increases with increasing concentrations of progestin; for women with well-controlled hypertension, monitor blood pressure and stop use if blood pressure rises significantly

            Hypersensitivity reactions of anaphylaxis and angioedema reported; if anaphylaxis and/or angioedema suspected, discontinue use and administer appropriate treatment

            Carefully monitor prediabetic and diabetic women who are using product; CHCs may decrease glucose tolerance

            Consider alternative contraception for women with uncontrolled dyslipidemia; some women will have adverse lipid changes while on CHCs

            Women with hypertriglyceridemia, or a family history thereof, may be at increased risk of pancreatitis when using CHCs

            If a woman develops new headaches that are recurrent, persistent, or severe, evaluate cause and discontinue if indicated

            Consider discontinuation in the case of an increased frequency or severity of migraine during CHC use (which may be prodromal of a cerebrovascular event)

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            Pregnancy & Lactation

            Pregnancy Category: X

            Lactation: Small amounts of steroids are excreted in breast milk; estrogens may reduce quality/quantity of milk; may be prudent to use other forms of birth control until full weaning (AAP Committee states compatible w/ nursing)

            Pregnancy Categories

            A: Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.

            B: May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.

            C: Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.

            D: Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.

            X: Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.

            NA: Information not available.

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            Pharmacology

            Mechanism of Action

            Ethinyl estradiol (EE): Reduces LHRH release from hypothalamus, reduces gonadotropin release from pituitary; increases synthesis of DNA, RNA, and various proteins in target tissues

            Etonogestrel: Progestin; inhibits gonadotropin secretion from pituitary; prevents follicular maturation & ovulation, stimulates growth of mammary tissues

            Pharmacokinetics

            Half-life: 44.7 hr (ethinyl estradiol); 29.3 hr (etonogestrel)

            Excretion: Urine, bile, and feces (ethinyl estradiol and etonogestrel)

            Bioavailability: 56% (ethinyl estraiol); 100% (etonogestrel)

            Metabolism: Liver (ethinyl estradiol and etonogestrel form metabolites)

            Protein binding 98% (ethinyl estradiol); 32% (etonogestrel; sex hormone binding globulin and 66% to albumin)

            Absorption: Rapid (ethinyl estradiol and etonogestrel; tampons do not interfere with absorption)

            Duration: Serum levels decrease after 3 weeks of continuous use

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            Administration

            Intravaginal Administration

            Consider possibility of ovulation and conception before the first use of etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol intravaginal ring

            One NuvaRing is inserted in the vagina and is to remain in place continuously for 3 weeks

            It is removed for a 1-week break, during which a withdrawal bleed usually occurs, THEN

            A new ring is inserted 1 week after the last ring was removed

            To prevent loss of contraceptive efficacy, advise women not to deviate from the recommended regimen

            No hormonal contraceptive use in preceding cycle

            • Insert ring on the first day of menstrual bleeding
            • May also be started on Days 2-5 of the woman’s cycle, but in this case a barrier method (eg, male condoms with spermicide) should be used for the first 7 days of the ring’s use in the first cycle

            Changing from other combination hormonal contraceptive (CHC)

            • May switch from previous CHC on any day, but at the latest on the day following the usual hormone-free interval
            • Ensure that the previous hormonal method was used consistently and correctly, and it is reasonably certain the woman is not pregnant

            Changing from progestin-only contraceptive

            • Progestin-only contraceptives vary (eg, oral, implant, long-acting injection, intrauterine system)
            • Progestin-only pill (POP): May switch on any day; instruct to insert the ring on the day after she took her last POP
            • Intrauterine system (IUS): Switch from an implant or the IUS on the day of its removal
            • Injection: Switch from injection when the next injection would be due
            • In all of these cases, the woman should use an additional barrier method (eg, male condom with spermicide) for the first 7 days

            Use after abortion or miscarriage

            • Complete first trimester abortion or miscarriage
              • May start using the ring within the first 5 days; no need to use an additional method of contraception
              • If not started within 5 days, follow the instructions for “no hormonal contraceptive use in the preceding cycle”
              • In the meantime, use a nonhormonal contraceptive method
            • Second trimester abortion or miscarriage
              • Do not start earlier than 4 weeks after a second trimester abortion or miscarriage, due to the increased risk of thromboembolism

            Following childbirth

            • Initiated use of ring no sooner than 4 weeks postpartum in women who elect not to breastfeed, due to the increased risk of thromboembolism in the postpartum period
            • Also instruct her to use an additional method of contraception (eg, male condoms with spermicide) for the first 7 days
            • Advise women who are breastfeeding not to use NuvaRing but to use other forms of contraception until the child is weaned

            Inadvertent removal or expulsion

            • If the ring is accidentally expelled and is left outside of the vagina for <3 hr, contraceptive efficacy is not reduced
            • Rinse ring with cool to lukewarm (not hot) water and reinserted as soon as possible, but at the latest within 3 hr
            • If the ring is lost, a new vaginal ring should be inserted and the regimen should be continued without alteration
            • If ring out of vagina >3 hr
              • During weeks 1 and 2: Contraceptive efficacy may be reduced; reinsert the ring as soon as possible and use a barrier method (eg, condoms with spermicides) until the ring has been used continuously for 7 days
              • During week 3: Discard that ring, and either insert a new ring immediately to start the next 3-week use period, OR insert a new ring no later than 7 days from the time the previous ring was expelled/removed and use barrier method for 7 days

            Prolonged ring-free interval

            • If the ring-free interval has been extended beyond 1 week, consider the possibility of pregnancy, and an additional method of contraception (eg, male condoms with spermicide) MUST be used until the ring has been used continuously for 7 days

            Prolonged use or ring

            • Left in place for up to 1 extra week (ie, up to 4 weeks total): The woman will remain protected; remove ring and insert a new ring after a 1-week ring-free interval
            • Left in place for >4 weeks: Instruct the woman to remove the ring, and rule out pregnancy; if pregnancy is ruled out, the ring may be restarted, and an additional method of contraception MUST be used until the new ring has been used continuously for 7 days

            Ring breakage

            • There have been reported cases of the disconnecting at the weld joint; this is not expected to affect the contraceptive effectiveness
            • Vaginal discomfort or expulsion (slipping out) is more likely to occur
            • Discard the ring and replace it with a new ring

            Missed menstrual period

            • If the woman has not adhered to the prescribed regimen consider the possibility of pregnancy at the time of the first missed period and discontinue the ring if pregnancy is confirmed
            • If the woman has adhered to the prescribed regimen and misses 2 consecutive periods, rule out pregnancy
            • If the woman has retained 1 ring for >4 weeks, rule out pregnancy

            Use with other vaginal products

            • The ring may interfere with the correct placement and position of a diaphragm; a diaphragm is therefore not recommended as a back-up contraceptive method
            • Pharmacokinetic data show that the use of tampons has no effect on the systemic absorption of the hormones released by the ring
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            Patient Handout

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            Formulary

            FormularyPatient Discounts

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            Tier Description
            1 This drug is available at the lowest co-pay. Most commonly, these are generic drugs.
            2 This drug is available at a middle level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "preferred" (on formulary) brand drugs.
            3 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs.
            4 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
            5 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
            6 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
            NC NOT COVERED – Drugs that are not covered by the plan.
            Code Definition
            PA Prior Authorization
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            Medscape prescription drug monographs are based on FDA-approved labeling information, unless otherwise noted, combined with additional data derived from primary medical literature.