emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (Rx)

Brand and Other Names:Truvada
  • Print

Dosing & Uses

AdultPediatric

Dosage Forms & Strengths

emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

tablet

  • 200mg/300mg

HIV Infection

Indicated in combination with other antiretroviral (ART) agents in adults and adolescents weighing at least 35 kg

One 200 mg/300 mg tablet PO qDay

HIV-1 Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

Indicated in combination with safer sex practices to reduce risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 in at-risk adults and adolescents weighing ≥35 kg

One 200 mg/300 mg tablet PO qDay

See Dosing Considerations

PrEP indications (CDC guidelines)

  • Men who have sex with men (MSM) at substantial lrisk of HIV acquisition
  • Adult heterosexually active men and women at substantial risk of HIV acquisition
  • Adult injection drug users (IDU) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition
  • Heterosexually-active women and men whose partners are known to have HIV infection (ie, HIV-discordant couples) to protect the uninfected partner during conception and pregnancy so that an informed decision can be made in awareness of what is known and unknown about benefits and risks of PrEP for mother and fetus

Factors that help identify individuals at high risk for HIV

  • Has partner(s) known to be HIV-1 infected or engages in sexual activity within a high prevalence area or social network and 1 or more of the following
  • Factors
    • Inconsistent or no condom use
    • Diagnosis or sexually transmitted infections
    • Exchange of sex for commodities (eg, money, food, shelter, drugs)
    • Illicit drug use or alcohol dependence
    • Incarceration
    • Partner(s) of unknown HIV-1 status with any of the risk factors listed above

Treatment of Hepatitis B / HIV-1 Coinfection (Off-label)

One 200 mg/300 mg tablet PO qDay in combination with other antiretroviral agents

Dosage Modifications

Renal impairment

  • HIV infection
    • CrCl ≥50 mL/min: Dose adjustment not necessary
    • CrCl 30-49 mL/min: One 200 mg/300 mg tablet PO q48hr
    • CrCl <30 mL/min and ESRD requiring dialysis: Not recommended
  • PrEP
    • CrCl ≥60 mL/min: Dose adjustment not necessary
    • CrCl <60 mL/min: Do not use for pre-exposure prophylaxis
    • If a decrease in estimated CrCl observed in an uninfected individual while taking emtricitabine/tenofovir DF for HIV-1 PrEP, evaluate potential causes and reassess potential risks and benefits of continued use

Hepatic impairment

  • No substantial alterations in tenofovir pharmacokinetics observed in clinical trials in subjects with hepatic impairment compared with unimpaired subjects
  • Pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine have not been studied with hepatic impairment; however, emtricitabine is not significantly metabolized by liver enzymes, so the impact of liver impairment should be limited

Dosing Considerations

All patients should be tested for the presence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) before or when initiating

Before initiating and during use, on a clinically appropriate schedule, assess serum creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose and urine protein in all patients; in patients with chronic kidney disease, also assess serum phosphorus

HIV infection

  • Not recommended for use as a component of a triple nucleoside regimen
  • Should not be coadministered with combination products that are complete regimens or already contain emtricitabine or tenofovir (eg, Atripla, Complera, Emtriva, Genvoya, Odefsey, Stribild, Viread)
  • Do not coadminister with lamivudine-containing products (eg, Epivir, Combivir, Dutrebis, Epzicom, Triumeq, Trizivir) because of similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine
  • In treatment experienced patients, use should be guided by laboratory testing and treatment history

PrEP

  • Individuals must have a negative HIV-1 test immediately prior to initiating emtricitabine/tenofovir AF for HIV-1
  • If clinical symptoms consistent with acute viral infection are present and recent (<1 month) exposures are suspected, delay starting PrEP for at least 1 month and reconfirm HIV-1 status or use a test cleared by the FDA as an aid in the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, including acute or primary HIV-1 infection
  • Continuing screening at least once q3months while taking emtricitabine/tenofovir AF

Dosage Forms & Strengths

emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

tablet

  • 100mg/150mg
  • 133mg/200mg
  • 167mg/250mg
  • 200mg/300mg

HIV Infection

Weight <17 kg: Safety and efficacy not established

Indicated in combination with other ART agents for children weighing at least 17 kg who can swallow the tablet whole

Weight ≥17 kg

  • 17 to <22 kg: One 100 mg/150 mg tablet PO qDay
  • 22 to <28 kg: One 133 mg/200 mg tablet PO qDay
  • 28 to <35 kg: One 167 mg/250 mg tablet PO qDay
  • ≥35 kg: One 200 mg/300 mg tablet PO qDay

HIV-1 Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

Indicated in combination with safer sex practices for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 in at-risk adults and adolescents weighing at least 35 kg

<35 kg: Safety and efficacy not established

≥35 kg: One 200 mg/300 mg tablet PO qDay

PrEP indications (CDC guidelines)

  • Men who have sex with men (MSM) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition
  • Adult heterosexually active men and women at substantial risk of HIV acquisition
  • Adult injection drug users (IDU) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition
  • Heterosexually-active women and men whose partners are known to have HIV infection (ie, HIV-discordant couples) to protect the uninfected partner during conception and pregnancy so that an informed decision can be made in awareness of what is known and unknown about benefits and risks of PrEP for mother and fetus

Factors that help identify individuals at high risk for HIV

  • Has partner(s) known to be HIV-1 infected or engages in sexual activity within a high prevalence area or social network and 1 or more of the following
  • Factors
    • Inconsistent or no condom use
    • Diagnosis or sexually transmitted infections
    • Exchange of sex for commodities (eg, money, food, shelter, drugs)
    • Illicit drug use or alcohol dependence
    • Incarceration
    • Partner(s) of unknown HIV-1 status with any of the risk factors listed above

Dosage Modifications

Renal impairment

  • No data are available to make dosage recommendations in pediatric patients infected with HIV-1 infection who have renal impairment
  • PrEP
    • CrCl ≥60 mL/min or greater: Dose adjustment not necessary
    • CrCl <60 mL/min: Do not use for pre-exposure prophylaxis
    • If a decrease in estimated CrCl observed in an uninfected individual while taking emtricitabine/tenofovir DF for HIV-1 PrEP, evaluate potential causes and reassess potential risks and benefits of continued use

Hepatic impairment

  • No substantial alterations in tenofovir pharmacokinetics observed in clinical trials in subjects with hepatic impairment compared with unimpaired subjects
  • Pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine have not been studied with hepatic impairment; however, emtricitabine is not significantly metabolized by liver enzymes, so the impact of liver impairment should be limited

Dosing Considerations

All patients should be tested for the presence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) before or when initiating

Before initiating and during use, on a clinically appropriate schedule, assess serum creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose and urine protein in all patients; in patients with chronic kidney disease, also assess serum phosphorus

HIV infection

  • Not recommended for use as a component of a triple nucleoside regimen
  • Should not be coadministered with combination products that are complete regimens or already contain emtricitabine or tenofovir (eg, Atripla, Complera, Emtriva, Genvoya, Odefsey, Stribild, Viread)
  • Do not coadminister with lamivudine-containing products (eg, Epivir, Combivir, Dutrebis, Epzicom, Triumeq, Trizivir) because of similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine
  • In treatment experienced patients, use should be guided by laboratory testing and treatment history

PrEP

  • Individuals must have a negative HIV-1 test immediately prior to initiating emtricitabine/tenofovir AF for HIV-1 PrEP
  • If clinical symptoms consistent with acute viral infection are present and recent (<1 month) exposures are suspected, delay starting PrEP for at least 1 month and reconfirm HIV-1 status or use a test cleared by the FDA as an aid in the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, including acute or primary HIV-1 infection
  • Continuing screening at least once q3months while taking emtricitabine/tenofovir AF
Next:

Interactions

Interaction Checker

and emtricitabine/tenofovir DF

No Results

     activity indicator 
    No Interactions Found
    Interactions Found

    Contraindicated

      Serious - Use Alternative

        Significant - Monitor Closely

          Minor

            All Interactions Sort By:
             activity indicator 

            Contraindicated (2)

            • elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF

              emtricitabine, elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF. Other (see comment). Contraindicated. Comment: Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir is a complete regimen for HIV and should not be administered with other antiretrovirals.

            • lamivudine

              emtricitabine and lamivudine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Contraindicated. Coadministration of emtricitabine containing products and lamivudine containing products should be avoided. Combination will result in therapeutic duplication.

              emtricitabine, lamivudine. Other (see comment). Contraindicated. Comment: Coadministration of emtricitabine containing products and lamivudine containing products should be avoided. Combination will result in therapeutic duplication.

            Serious - Use Alternative (1)

            • cabotegravir

              emtricitabine, cabotegravir. Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Comment: Cabotegravir plus rilpivirine is a complete regimen. Coadministration with other antiretroviral medications for treating HIV-1 infection is not recommended.

            Monitor Closely (42)

            • abacavir

              abacavir and emtricitabine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • acyclovir

              acyclovir increases levels of emtricitabine by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion may increase serum concentrations of emtricitabine.

            • adefovir

              adefovir increases levels of emtricitabine by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion may increase serum concentrations of emtricitabine.

            • atazanavir

              atazanavir and emtricitabine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • celecoxib

              emtricitabine, celecoxib. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • cidofovir

              cidofovir increases levels of emtricitabine by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion may increase serum concentrations of emtricitabine.

            • diclofenac

              emtricitabine, diclofenac. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • diflunisal

              emtricitabine, diflunisal. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • efavirenz

              efavirenz and emtricitabine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • enfuvirtide

              emtricitabine and enfuvirtide both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • etodolac

              emtricitabine, etodolac. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • fenoprofen

              emtricitabine, fenoprofen. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • flurbiprofen

              emtricitabine, flurbiprofen. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • fosamprenavir

              fosamprenavir and emtricitabine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ganciclovir

              ganciclovir, emtricitabine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Use alternatives if available. Increased risk of hematologic toxicity.

              ganciclovir increases levels of emtricitabine by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion may increase serum concentrations of emtricitabine.

            • ibuprofen

              emtricitabine, ibuprofen. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • ibuprofen IV

              emtricitabine, ibuprofen IV. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • indinavir

              indinavir and emtricitabine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • indomethacin

              emtricitabine, indomethacin. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • ketoprofen

              emtricitabine, ketoprofen. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • ketorolac

              emtricitabine, ketorolac. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • meclofenamate

              emtricitabine, meclofenamate. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • mefenamic acid

              emtricitabine, mefenamic acid. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • meloxicam

              emtricitabine, meloxicam. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • nabumetone

              emtricitabine, nabumetone. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • naproxen

              emtricitabine, naproxen. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • nelfinavir

              nelfinavir and emtricitabine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nevirapine

              emtricitabine and nevirapine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • orlistat

              orlistat will decrease the level or effect of emtricitabine by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Use Caution/Monitor. Loss of virological control reported in HIV-infected patients taking orlistat concomitantly. Exact mechanism is unclear, but may include a drug-drug interaction that inhibits systemic absorption of the antiretroviral drug. Monitor HIV RNA levels frequently and if increased HIV viral load confirmed, discontinue orlistat.

            • oxaprozin

              emtricitabine, oxaprozin. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • piroxicam

              emtricitabine, piroxicam. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • ribavirin

              ribavirin increases toxicity of emtricitabine by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Use alternatives if available. Increased risk of lactic acidosis.

            • ritonavir

              ritonavir and emtricitabine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • saquinavir

              saquinavir and emtricitabine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • stavudine

              emtricitabine and stavudine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • sulindac

              emtricitabine, sulindac. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • tenofovir DF

              emtricitabine and tenofovir DF both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tipranavir

              tipranavir and emtricitabine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • tolmetin

              emtricitabine, tolmetin. Either increases levels of the other by decreasing renal clearance. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Toxicity may result from coadministration of emtricitabine with other drugs that are also primarily excreted by glomerular filtration and/or active tubular secretion including high-dose or multiple-dose NSAIDs; alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered.

            • valacyclovir

              valacyclovir increases levels of emtricitabine by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion may increase serum concentrations of emtricitabine.

            • valganciclovir

              valganciclovir, emtricitabine. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Use alternatives if available. Increased risk of hematologic toxicity.

              valganciclovir increases levels of emtricitabine by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor. Comment: Coadministration of emtricitabine with drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion may increase serum concentrations of emtricitabine.

            • zidovudine

              emtricitabine and zidovudine both increase risk of immune reconstitution syndrome. Use Caution/Monitor.

            Minor (0)

              Previous
              Next:

              Adverse Effects

              >10%

              Note: includes adverse effects of any severity rating

              Diarrhea

              Nausea

              Fatigue

              Headache

              Dizziness

              Depression

              Insomnia

              Abnormal dreams

              Rash

              1-10%

              Note: includes adverse effects grade 2-4

              Diarrhea (9%)

              Nausea (9%)

              Fatigue (9%)

              Depression (9%)

              Sinusitis (8%)

              URI infections (8%)

              Dizziness (8%)

              Rash event (7%)

              Headache (6%)

              Nasopharyngitis (5%)

              Insomnia (5%)

              Vomiting (2%)

              Previous
              Next:

              Warnings

              Black Box Warnings

              Posttreatment acute exacerbation of hepatitis B

              • Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reported in HBV-infected patients who have discontinued emtricitabine/tenofovir DF
              • Monitor hepatic function with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after discontinuing
              • If appropriate, initiation of antihepatitis B therapy may be warranted

              Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

              • Use for PrEP must only be prescribed to individuals confirmed to be HIV-negative immediately prior to initiating and periodically (at least every 3 months) during use
              • Drug-resistant HIV-1 variants have been identified with use of emtricitabine/tenofovir for a PrEP indication following undetected acute HIV-1 infection
              • Do not initiate emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP if signs or symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection are present unless negative infection status is confirmed

              Contraindications

              Hypersensitivity

              Do not use as PrEP in HIV-infected individuals or individuals with unknown HIV status

              Use as monotherapy in HIV-infected patients

              Cautions

              Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, reported with nucleoside analogues, including emtricitabine and tenofovir; suspend dosing in those who develop clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity

              Do not coadminister with other drugs containing emtricitabine or tenofovir

              Severe exacerbation of hepatitis B may occur upon discontinuation (see Black Box Warning)

              Immune reconstitution syndrome reported with combination ART; during the initial treatment phase, patients whose immune systems respond may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (eg, Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [PCP], or tuberculosis); autoimmune disorders (eg, Grave disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported

              PrEP

              • Use for HIV-1 PrEP only as part of a comprehensive prevention strategy that includes other prevention measures, such as safer sex practices, because emtricitabine/tenofovir AF is not always effective in preventing acquisition of HIV-1
              • Care should be taken to minimize risk of initiating or continuing therapy before confirming individual is HIV-1 negative
              • Counsel individuals on use of other prevention measures (e.g., consistent and correct condom use, knowledge of partner(s)’ HIV-1 status, including viral suppression status, regular testing for STIs that can facilitate HIV-1 transmission)
              • Inform uninfected individuals about and support their efforts in reducing sexual risk behavior
              • While on therapy for HIV-1 PrEP, HIV-1 testing should be repeated at least every 3 months, and upon diagnosis of any other STIs
              • If an HIV-1 test indicates possible HIV-1 infection, or if symptoms consistent with acute HIV-1 infection develop following a potential exposure event, convert the HIV-1 PrEP regimen to HIV treatment regimen until negative infection status confirmed using a test approved or cleared by FDA as an aid in diagnosis of acute or primary HIV-1 infection
              • Counsel HIV-1 uninfected individuals to strictly adhere to the once daily dosing schedule
              • Some individuals, such as adolescents, may benefit from more frequent visits and counseling to support adherence

              Hepatitis B exacerbations

              • All individuals should be tested for the presence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) before or when initiating therapy
              • Individuals infected with HBV who discontinue drug should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment
              • If appropriate, anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted, especially in individuals with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, since posttreatment exacerbation of hepatitis may lead to hepatic decompensation and liver failure; HBV-uninfected individuals should be offered vaccination

              Renal toxicity

              • Increased risk of new onset or worsening renal impairment
              • Obtain estimated CrCl in all patients before initiating
              • Routinely monitor calculated creatinine clearance and serum phosphorus
              • Avoid use if CrCl <30 mL/min (<60 mL/min for PrEP), hemodialysis, or concurrent or recent use of nephrotoxic drugs
              • Tenofovir DF may cause renal toxicity (acute renal failure and/or Fanconi syndrome); avoid administering therapy with concurrent or recent use of nephrotoxic drugs, including NSAIDs; consider alternative to NSAIDs in patients taking tenofovir DF and at risk of renal impairment

              Bone effects of tenofovir

              • Bone mineral density may decrease; consider assessment of bone mineral density in patients with a history of pathologic fracture or other risk factors for osteoporosis or bone loss
              • Osteomalacia associated with proximal renal tubulopathy, manifested as bone pain or pain in extremities and which may contribute to fractures, have been reported
              • Consider hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia secondary to proximal renal tubulopathy in patients at risk of renal dysfunction who present with persistent or worsening bone or muscle symptoms while receiving TDF-containing products

              Drug interaction overview

              • Drug affecting renal function
                • Emtricitabine and tenofovir are primarily excreted by the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion
                • No drug-drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed; however, coadministration with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of emtricitabine, tenofovir, and/or the coadministered drug
              • P-gp and BCRP inhibitors
                • Tenofovir DF is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporters
                • Increased tenofovir absorption may occur if coadministered with inhibitors of these transporters
              Previous
              Next:

              Pregnancy & Lactation

              Pregnancy

              Data on the use during pregnancy from observational studies have shown no increased risk of major birth defects

              Available data from the Antiretroviral Regnancy Registry (APR) show no increase in the overall risk of major birth defects with first trimester exposure for emtricitabine (2.3%) or tenofovir DF (2.1%) compared with the background rate for major birth defects of 2.7%

              Healthcare providers are encouraged to register pregnant women by calling the APR at 1-800-258-4263

              Pregnant women with HIV infection should continue antiretroviral drugs according to current guidelines during pregnancy to decrease maternal-fetal viral transmission (https://aidsinfo.nih.gov)

              Lactation

              Emtricitabine and tenofovir have been shown to be present in human breast milk

              HIV-1 infected women

              • The CDC recommend that HIV-1 infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1
              • Because of the potential for HIV transmission (in HIV-negative infants); developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants); and adverse reactions in a breastfed infant similar to those seen in adults
              • Instruct mothers not to breastfeed

              Women taking PrEP

              • In HIV-uninfected women, consider the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding and the mother’s clinical need of drug therapy for HIV-1 PrEP along with any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from drug therapy and the risk of HIV-1 acquisition due to nonadherence and subsequent mother to child transmission
              • Women should not breastfeed if acute HIV-1 infection is suspected because of the risk of HIV-1 transmission to the infant

              Pregnancy Categories

              A: Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.

              B: May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.

              C: Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.

              D: Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.

              X: Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.

              NA: Information not available.

              Previous
              Next:

              Pharmacology

              Mechanism of Action

              Emtricitabine: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI); following phosphorylation, interferes with HIV viral DNA polymerase and inhibits viral replication; cytosine analogue

              Tenofovir: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI); following hydrolysis and phosphorylation, inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by competing with AMP as substrate

              Previous
              Next:

              Administration

              Oral Administration

              May take with or without food

              Swallow tablet whole; do not chew, crush, break, or dissolve

              Previous
              Next:

              Images

              No images available for this drug.
              Previous
              Next:

              Patient Handout

              A Patient Handout is not currently available for this monograph.
              Previous
              Next:

              Formulary

              FormularyPatient Discounts

              Adding plans allows you to compare formulary status to other drugs in the same class.

              To view formulary information first create a list of plans. Your list will be saved and can be edited at any time.

              Adding plans allows you to:

              • View the formulary and any restrictions for each plan.
              • Manage and view all your plans together – even plans in different states.
              • Compare formulary status to other drugs in the same class.
              • Access your plan list on any device – mobile or desktop.

              The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information.

              Tier Description
              1 This drug is available at the lowest co-pay. Most commonly, these are generic drugs.
              2 This drug is available at a middle level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "preferred" (on formulary) brand drugs.
              3 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs.
              4 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
              5 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
              6 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
              NC NOT COVERED – Drugs that are not covered by the plan.
              Code Definition
              PA Prior Authorization
              Drugs that require prior authorization. This restriction requires that specific clinical criteria be met prior to the approval of the prescription.
              QL Quantity Limits
              Drugs that have quantity limits associated with each prescription. This restriction typically limits the quantity of the drug that will be covered.
              ST Step Therapy
              Drugs that have step therapy associated with each prescription. This restriction typically requires that certain criteria be met prior to approval for the prescription.
              OR Other Restrictions
              Drugs that have restrictions other than prior authorization, quantity limits, and step therapy associated with each prescription.
              Additional Offers
              Email to Patient

              From:

              To:

              The recipient will receive more details and instructions to access this offer.

              By clicking send, you acknowledge that you have permission to email the recipient with this information.

              Email Forms to Patient

              From:

              To:

              The recipient will receive more details and instructions to access this offer.

              By clicking send, you acknowledge that you have permission to email the recipient with this information.

              Previous
              Medscape prescription drug monographs are based on FDA-approved labeling information, unless otherwise noted, combined with additional data derived from primary medical literature.