Fast Five Quiz: How Much Do You Know About HIV?

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD; Nicholas J. Bennett, MBBCh, PhD, MA(Cantab)


June 01, 2023

Candidiasis of the bronchi, trachea, lungs and oesophagus are among the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea and cytomegalovirus hepatitis, may be found in people with HIV who acquired their HIV infection via sexual transmission, but they are not considered opportunistic infections.

When an individual's immune system is damaged to the degree that significant opportunistic infections begin to develop, the person is considered to have AIDS. The general frequency of these infections and conditions varies from rare to common, but all are uncommon or mild in immunocompetent persons. Other opportunistic infections and conditions include:

  • Cervical cancer, invasive

  • Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary

  • Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal (duration > 1 month)

  • Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen or nodes)

  • Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with vision loss)

  • Encephalopathy, HIV-related

  • Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer or ulcers (duration > 1 month) or bronchitis, pneumonitis or oesophagitis

  • Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (duration > 1 month)

  • Kaposi sarcoma

  • Lymphoma, Burkitt (or equivalent term)

  • Lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term)

  • Lymphoma, primary, of the brain

  • Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium kansasii infection, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, any site (pulmonary or extrapulmonary)

  • Mycobacterium infection with other species or unidentified species, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Pneumocystis pneumonia

  • Pneumonia, recurrent

  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

  • Salmonella septicemia, recurrent

  • Toxoplasmosis of the brain

  • Wasting syndrome owing to HIV infection

Learn more about the pathophysiology of HIV and its relationship to opportunistic conditions.


Comments on Medscape are moderated and should be professional in tone and on topic. You must declare any conflicts of interest related to your comments and responses. Please see our Commenting Guide for further information. We reserve the right to remove posts at our sole discretion.