Unilateral cataracts are usually isolated sporadic incidents. They can be associated with ocular abnormalities (eg, posterior lenticonus, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, anterior segment dysgenesis, posterior pole tumors); trauma; or intrauterine infection, particularly rubella.
Bilateral cataracts are often inherited and associated with other diseases. They require a full metabolic, infectious, systemic, and genetic workup. The common causes are hypoglycemia, trisomy (eg, Down, Edwards, and Patau syndromes), myotonic dystrophy, infectious diseases (eg, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex [TORCH]), and prematurity.
For more on the etiology of congenital cataract, read here.
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Cite this: Robert H. Graham. Fast Five Quiz: Can You Properly Address Cataracts? - Medscape - Jul 22, 2015.