Cytologic examination of the urine may be considered in patients with predominantly irritative voiding symptoms. Risk factors for bladder cancer (smoking, previous bladder cancer) should alert the physician to consider this optional, noninvasive test.
Required testing includes a medical history, which should be taken to qualify and quantify voiding dysfunction. Identification of other causes of voiding dysfunction and medical comorbidities are essential to properly assess the condition and to determine conditions that may complicate treatment.
The physical examination should consist of a focused physical examination and a neurologic examination. The physical examination includes a digital rectal examination to measure prostate size and to assess for abnormalities. The neurologic examination is geared toward lower-extremity neurologic and muscular function, as well as anal sphincter tone. Examination of the phallus and foreskin occasionally reveals meatal stenosis, un-retractable foreskin, penile ulcers, or foreign bodies such as warts.
PSA testing is recommended for patients with a 10-year life expectancy in whom the diagnosis of prostate cancer would change management.
For more on the workup of BPH, read here.
Medscape © 2017 WebMD, LLC
Any views expressed above are the author's own and do not necessarily reflect the views of WebMD or Medscape.
Cite this: Bradley Schwartz. Fast Five Quiz: Test Your Knowledge of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Medscape - Mar 09, 2017.