Data suggest that a high-fat diet may increase the risk for Crohn disease, particularly an imbalance between omega-6 (n-6)/omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in favor of n-6 PUFAs. On the other hand, a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk for IBD. Crohn disease and vitamin D deficiency are common among patients with IBD.
Studies have found compelling evidence of an inheritable risk for the development of Crohn disease. While classic Mendelian inheritance is not seen, recent data suggest that NOD2 may be a Mendelian disease gene for early-onset Crohn.
Smoking has been shown to significantly increase the risk for Crohn disease, whereas the risk of developing ulcerative colitis is lower in people who smoke than in those who have never smoked or in those who stopped smoking before their diagnosis. Smoking also increases the risk for complications from Crohn disease (eg, strictures, fistula) and the need for surgery.
Although appendectomy has been suggested to be beneficial for patients with ulcerative colitis, it is not a protective factor in Crohn disease.
Learn more about the etiology of Crohn disease.
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Cite this: Jamie Shalkow, Cristian Puerta. Fast Five Quiz: Test Yourself on Crohn Disease - Medscape - Jan 12, 2022.