In a substantial number of cases, the cause of epilepsy remains unknown. Identified causes tend to vary with patient age. Inherited syndromes, congenital brain malformations, infection, and head trauma are leading causes in children. Head trauma is one of the most common known causes in young adults. Strokes, tumors, and head trauma become more frequent in middle age, with stroke becoming the most common cause in elderly persons, along with Alzheimer disease and other degenerative conditions.
For patients with known seizure disorder, the most likely cause is subtherapeutic levels of antiepileptic medications, which usually occur owing to either medical noncompliance or a systemic derangement that may disrupt absorption, distribution, and metabolism of medication (eg, infection).
For more on the etiology of seizures, read here.
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Cite this: Amy Kao, Helmi L Lutsep. Fast Five Quiz: Test Your Knowledge of Various Seizures and Their Causes - Medscape - Apr 03, 2017.