In lumbar spine studies, inflammatory cytokines are found at high levels in facet joint tissue when a degenerative disorder is present. Facet joints are covered by hyaline cartilage and enclosed with synovium and joint capsules. This basic structure is found throughout the spine and in the joints of the arms and the legs.
Chronic neck pain, regardless of its cause, is identified in 9.5% of men and in 13.5% of women. Postmortem studies have shown that ligamentous injuries are common after whiplash injuries, but disc herniation is a rare event.
The C2-3 facet joint is the most common source of referred pain in patients with a dominant complaint of occipital headache (60%). The C5-6 region is the most common source of cervical, axial, and referred arm pain.
For more on the background of neck pain, read here.
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Cite this: Fast Five Quiz: Test Yourself on Key Aspects of Neck Pain - Medscape - Aug 10, 2017.