The term "anal cancer" usually refers to anal squamous cell carcinoma. Anal squamous cell carcinoma is a distinct disease entity that, like cervical cancer, is primarily linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In both diseases, HPV leads to dysplasia and progression to cancer.
The incidence rate of anal cancer has been increasing over the past 20-30 years. In the era of greater compliance with screening protocols and greater compliance with cancer treatment in general, this apparent rise in incidence is worrisome and is attracting the attention of regulatory and professional bodies in the field. Whereas the incidence of cervical cancer is falling by about 2% per year, the incidence of anal cancer has increased at a rate of approximately 2.2% per year during the past decade.
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Cite this: Elwyn C. Cabebe. Fast Five Quiz: How Much Do You Know About Anal Cancer? - Medscape - Oct 30, 2017.