Fast Five Quiz: Test Your Knowledge on Key Aspects of Heart Failure

Yasmine S. Ali, MD, MSCI; Jeffrey J. Hsu, MD


December 19, 2022

Thyrotoxicosis, multiple myeloma, and profound anemia are high-output states that can precipitate the clinical presentation of HF. Others include:

  • Myxedema

  • Paget disease of bone

  • Albright syndrome

  • Glomerulonephritis

  • Cor pulmonale

  • Polycythemia vera

  • Obesity

  • Carcinoid syndrome

  • Pregnancy

  • Nutritional deficiencies (eg, thiamine deficiency, beriberi)

Decompensation in a previously compensated patient with heart failure can also be caused by a combination of inappropriate drug treatment, dietary sodium restriction, and decreased physical activity. Uncontrolled hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias (most commonly atrial fibrillation) are other common causes of decompensation.

Learn more about the etiology of HF.


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