The 2013 AHA/ACC lifestyle management guidelines recommendation for physical activity to reduce LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and blood pressure is three to four sessions each week that last an average of 40 minutes per session and involve moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity.
Adults who would benefit from a reduction in LDL-C should emphasize intake of foods including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish, and nontropical vegetable oils. Limit the intake of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red meats. Adults can achieve this type of diet by following plans such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, AHA diet, or US Department of Agriculture food patterns. In addition, limiting the amount of calories from saturated fat to 5%-6% as well as reducing the percentage of calories from trans fat are recommended.
Guidance in reducing sodium intake includes not consuming more than 2400 mg of sodium daily, an associated greater reduction in blood pressure with further reduction to 1500 mg/day, and achieving a lower blood pressure with reduction of sodium intake by at least 1000 mg daily.
Although observational studies have shown that higher dietary potassium intake is associated with lower stroke risk, evidence is insufficient to determine whether increasing dietary potassium intake lowers blood pressure.
For more on dietary management of cardiovascular risks, read here.
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Cite this: Yasmine S. Ali. Fast Five Quiz: How Much Do You Know About Cardiovascular Risk Factors? - Medscape - Apr 13, 2018.