Urinary tract obstruction or dysfunction and tubulointerstitial disease are both recognized causes of CKD. Other causes of CKD include:
Diabetic kidney disease
Diabetic kidney disease and hypertension are the two most frequent causes of ESRD
Glomerular disease (primary or secondary)
Cystic kidney diseases
Recurrent kidney stone disease
Congenital (birth) defects of the kidney or bladder
Unrecovered acute kidney injury
Most cases of CKD are acquired rather than inherited. Well-described genetic syndromes associated with CKD include autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and Alport syndrome.
Men appear to have higher rates of ESRD than women; men also have higher rates of mortality associated with the disease, according to Benjamin and colleagues.
Patients with more advanced CKD are more prone to experience hyperkalemia, as the kidneys have decreased ability to excrete potassium.
Major risk factors for hyperkalemia include CKD and acute kidney injury as well as any acquired or inherited defects in potassium excretion in the distal nephron. Hyperkalemia in CKD can be aggravated by an extracellular shift of potassium, such as occurs in the setting of acidemia or from lack of insulin. The use of renin-angiotensin aldosterone inhibitors is inherently associated with the risk for hyperkalemia, while angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) are the cornerstones of the cardiorenal protection.
Hypokalemia can develop in patients with very poor intake of potassium, gastrointestinal or urinary loss of potassium, diarrhea, or in patients who use diuretics.
Learn more about the etiology and epidemiology of CKD.
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Cite this: Vecihi Batuman, Patrick Rossignol. Fast Five Quiz: Is Your Knowledge of Chronic Kidney Disease Sufficient? - Medscape - Jul 21, 2022.