Some viruses are implicated in the pathogenesis of NHL, probably because of their ability to induce chronic antigenic stimulation and cytokine dysregulation, which leads to uncontrolled B-cell or T-cell stimulation, proliferation, and lymphomagenesis. Epstein-Barr virus is a DNA virus that is associated with Burkitt lymphoma (especially the endemic form in Africa), Hodgkin disease, lymphomas in immunocompromised patients (eg, from HIV infection, organ transplantation), and sinonasal lymphoma.
High-grade lymphoblastic and small noncleaved lymphomas are the most common types of NHL observed in children and young adults. At diagnosis, low-grade lymphomas account for 37% of NHLs in patients aged 35-64 years but account for only 16% of cases in patients younger than 35 years. Low-grade lymphomas are extremely rare in children.
Celiac disease has been associated with an increased risk for malignant lymphomas. The risk for lymphoproliferative malignancy in individuals with celiac disease depends on small intestinal histopathology; no increased risk is observed in those with latent celiac disease.
For more on the etiology and epidemiology of NHL, read here.
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Cite this: Emmanuel C. Besa. Fast Five Quiz: Test Your Knowledge on Key Aspects of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma - Medscape - Aug 20, 2018.