Fast Five Quiz: Migraine Prevention and Treatment

Helmi L. Lutsep, MD


February 04, 2022

Figure 1. Photo of oral contraceptives.

Various precipitants of migraine events have been identified, including:

  • Hormonal changes, such as those accompanying menstruation (common), pregnancy, and ovulation

  • Medications (eg, vasodilators, oral contraceptives)

  • Caffeine withdrawal

  • Excessive or insufficient sleep

  • Stress

  • Smoking

  • Exposure to bright or fluorescent lighting

  • Strong odors (eg, perfumes, colognes, petroleum distillates)

  • Head trauma

  • Weather changes

  • Motion sickness

  • Cold stimulus (eg, ice cream headaches)

  • Lack of exercise

  • Fasting or skipping meals

  • Red wine

Some factors that seem like triggers may in fact be early migraine symptoms.

Learn more about migraine triggers.


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