Fast Five Quiz: Heart Failure Presentation and Diagnosis

Yasmine S. Ali, MD

Disclosures

September 11, 2019

Heart failure is a complex pathophysiologic state in which the heart is either unable to pump blood at a rate commensurate with the requirements of the metabolizing tissues or is able to do so only through an elevated diastolic filling pressure. The list of heart failure causes, which is long and varied, includes systemic diseases (eg, hypertension, diabetes), coronary artery disease, adverse effects of certain medications, effects of recreational drug use, and genetic factors (eg, dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathies). Although heart failure can occur at any age, it has a higher prevalence in elderly patients (ie, those aged ≥ 65 years)

Heart failure, which affects approximately 26 million people worldwide, is a global pandemic. In industrialized and developing countries, processed foods and a more sedentary lifestyle result in increased rates of hypertension, diabetes, and heart failure. In the United States, congestive heart failure is the primary cause of hospitalization in elderly patients, and has high costs in terms of lives lost and healthcare dollars. European countries have similar treatments and outcomes as the United States, despite varied cultures and economic status of heart failure patients. In developing nations, in which there is a lack of preventive care and limited health resources, patients present with heart failure (predominantly isolated right heart failure) at a younger age.

The detrimental effects of heart failure demand diligence in estimating patient risk and recognizing signs of heart failure. Do you know appropriate testing and diagnostic criteria for heart failure? Test your knowledge with this short quiz.

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