Advanced age (> 60 years) and hospitalization (particularly sharing a hospital room with an infected patient, intensive care unit stays, and prolonged hospital stays) are known risk factors for infection with C difficile. Severe illnesses, immune suppression, and gastric acid suppression (or bypassing gastric acid via enteral feeds) are also well-established risk factors. Inflammatory bowel disease has been implicated as a strong risk factor for C difficile infection. Emergency general surgery has also been associated with a high incidence of C difficile infection, particularly in patients who receive three or more postoperative antibiotics and those who undergo bowel resections.
Rarer associations include the following:
Antineoplastic agents, principally methotrexate
Chronic kidney disease
Nonsurgical gastrointestinal procedures, including placement of nasogastric tubes
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Cite this: B.S. Anand. Fast Five Quiz: Clostridium difficile - Medscape - Aug 05, 2019.