Fast Five Quiz: Type 2 Diabetes Presentation and Diagnosis

Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD; Anne L. Peters, MD


December 20, 2022

The Dawn phenomenon refers to the abnormal "nocturnal nadir" to early morning increase in blood glucose level (> 20 mg/dL) that affects > 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes who experience the dawn phenomenon have both higher A1c and 24-hour glucose levels compared with patients without type 2 diabetes.

The Somogyi effect (also called Somogyi phenomenon or rebound hyperglycemia) refers to hypoglycemia that occurs during the nighttime hours as a result of excess exogenous insulin (eg, from inadvertent or ill-timed insulin administration or missed meals). The Somogyi effect, which is more common in patients with type 1 diabetes than in patients with type 2 diabetes, remains highly controversial in clinical practice because of studies refuting nocturnal hypoglycemia as a cause of morning or daytime hyperglycemia.

Learn more about the clinical presentation of type 2 diabetes.


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